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Central or extrinsic control of the cardiovascular system occurs through the action of which of the following?
A.  Autonomic nervous system
B.  Circulating humoral agents
C.  Local metabolites.
A, B and C
What is the primary function of local or intrinsic cardiovascular control mechanisms?
To alter local blood flow according to tissue needs.
Central control of vasomotor tone (both neural innervation and humoral factors) is mainly through actions on the musculature of which of the following?
A.  Arteriorles
B.  Veins
C.  Microcirculation
B, and C
Variations in blood flow in the coronary arteries of the heart are governed primarily by which of the following?
A.  Local metabolite control
B.  Sympathetic control mechanisms
C.  Central neural innervation
A.  Local metabolite control
Which of the following factors determine cardiac stroke volume?
A.  Ventricular preload
B.  Ventricular afterload
C.  Ventricular contractility
A, B and C.
Which of the following is true of the force against which the LV must pump?
A.  Referred to as left ventricular afterload.
B.  Equivalent to systemic vascular resistance.
C.  Helps to determine LV stroke volume
A, B and C
Significant loss of blood volume causes increase in which of the following?
A.  Vascular tone
B.  Secretion of ADH
C.  Heart rate
A, B and C
During the latter stages of ventricular relaxation, the pressures in their chambers drop below those of the atria.  This results in which of the following?
A.  Opening of the AV valves
B.  Rapid ventricular filling
C.  Rapid drop in atrial pressures
A, B and C
Cardiac muscle contraction is the result of which ionic mechanism?
Depolarization
All of the following are parts of the cardiac conduction system except:
A.  Bundle of His
B.  Chordae tendineae
C.  SA node
D.  Purkine fibers
B.  Chordae tendineae
The systemic arterioles regulate blood flow through different areas of the body by which of the following mechanisms?
A.  Constricting or relaxing the arteriole walls.
B. Closing or opening of arteriole sphincter muscles.
C.  Valves in the lumen of the vessels.
D.  Skeletal muscle contracting the arterioles.
A.  Constricting or relaxing the arteriole walls.
Which of the following ECG segments represents depolarization of the ventricles?
A.  The ST segment
B.  The P wave
C.  The PR interval
D.  The QRS wave/complex.
D.  The QRS wave/complex.
Which of the following influences blood return through the venous circulation into the right atrium?
A.  Closing or relaxing the arteriole walls.
B.  Closing or opening of arteriole sphincter muscles.
C.  The increase in negative pleural pressure during inspiration.
D.  Capillary dilation.
C.  The increase in negative pleural pressure during inspiration.
A life threatening drop in BP is called?
Shock
The systolic/diastolic arterial blood pressure of a normal adult male is about _______.
120/70
Variations in blood flow to the brain are governed primarily by which of the following?
A.  Central neural innervation
B.  Local myogenic control mechanisms
C.  Circulation of humoral agents.
D.  Local metabolic control.
D.  Local metabolic control
Which portion of the nervous system is mainly responsible for the central control of blood flow?
Sympathetic nervous system
What formula is used to calculate the total amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute, or cardiac output?
Rate (f) x SV
What is the approximate normal resting cardiac output for a healthy adult?
5000mL/min  (5L)
Change in the rate of cardiac contractions are affected primarily by changes in which of the following?
A.  Sympathetic or parasympathetic neurons.
B.  Ventricular preload.
C.  Ventricular afterload.
D.  Ventricular contractility.
A.  Sympathetic or parasympathetic neurons.
Where are the "central centers" responsible for regulating the cardiovascular system located?
Brainstem (pons and medulla)
In order to function effectively, the central cardiovascular control mechanism must receive signals regarding changes in blood volume or pressure.  From where do these signals come?
Peripheral baroreceptors
What does the Frank-Starling Law of the heart state?
The more cardiac fibres stretch, the greater the stroke volume (tension upon contraction).
What is the normal cardiac ejection fraction?
2/3
Why are the vessels of the venous system, particularly the small venules and veins, termed capacitance vessels?
Because they can alter their capacity to maintain perfusion pressures.
During exercise, cardiac output increases dramatically, but MABP rises very little.  Why is this so?
Muscle vessels dilate, increasing vascular capacity.
During blood loss due to hemorrhage, perfusing pressures can be kept near normal until the volume loss overwhelms the system.  Why is this so?
Venules constrict, decreasing vascular capacity.
The cardiovascular system regulates perfusion mainly by altering which of the following?
A.  Capacity and resistance of blood vessels
B.  Rate of cardiac contractions
C.  Volume of cardiac contractions
D.  Strength of cardiac contractions.
A.  Capacity and resistance of blood vessels.
Which of the following are considered "resistance vessels?"
A.  Small arteries and arterioles
B.  Veins
C.  Large arteries
D.  Capillaries
A.  Small arteries and arterioles
MABP can be regulated by changing which of the following:
A.  Effective volume of circulating blood
B.  Capacity of the circulatory system
C.  Tone of the capacitance vessels (veins).
A, B and C
Frank-Starling statement "the greater the preload, the greater the force of contraction" in reality is true:
A.  always, under any circumstance.
B.  only if fibres are not overstretched.
C.  even when fibres are overstretched
D.  only if fibres are understretched.
B.  only if fibres are not overstretched.
Cardiac sympathetic receptors are mainly of the ________ type.
Beta 1
Parasympathetic fibres are concentrated in:
A.  SA node
B.  AV node
C.  atria
D.  ventricles
A, B and C.
The SA node's intrinsic beat is around ________.
100 bpm
The pulmonary artery catheter is also known as:
PAC, Swan-Ganz, and Quadruple Channel
Stimulation of the carina can result in:
Severe bradycardia
Which vessels have the most constricting ability?
Arterioles
Which vessels are highly distensible?
Aorta and large arteries
If arterial walls were perfectly rigid, blood would:
not flow during diastole
A BP reading of 180/40 indicates:
A.  a strong heart
B.  a weak heart
C.  pliant arteries
D.  hardening arteries
D.  Hardening of the arteries
Atropine blocks parasympathetic activity.  Atropine should therefore:
A.  increase the HR
B.  decrease the HR
C.  not affect the HR
D.  block the ventricular rate
A.  increase the HR
"Shock" as applied to the cardiovascular system means:
tissue perfusion is markedly abnormal
Pulse pressure is:
A.  systolic minus diastolic
B.  systolic plus diastolic
C.  diastolic minus systolic
D.  systolic x 2 minus diastolic
A.  systolic minus diastolic
Patient X has a blood pressure of 170/80. What does the diastolic value tell you?
A.  SVR is low to normal
B.  PVR is low to normal
C.  SVR is high and abnormal
D.  PVR is high and abnormal
A.  SVR is low to normal
Patient Y shows bilateral distended jugular veins upon standing.  This suggests?
Right heart failure
Hypertension (BP 140/90, MAP 110) of unknown origin is also called?
Essential hypertension
Which locally produced substances control microcirculation, and vasodilate blood vessels to tissue?
A.  CO2
B.  O2
C.  lactic acid
D.  nitric oxide
E.  hydrogen ions
A, C, D and E.  CO2, lactic acid, nitric oxide, and hydrogen ions
A patient with high systemic vascular resistance would benefit from drugs that would:
A.  stimulate beta 2 receptors
B.  stimulate beta 1 receptors
C.  stimulate alpha receptors
D.  stimulate gamma receptors
A.  stimulate beta 2 receptors
In cases of runaway tachycardia, it is possible to slow the heart down by massaging the neck.  This must only be done by trained medical personnel.  What is being massaged?
Carotid baroreceptors
Which type of tissue is blood categorized under having a matrix and living cells?
Connective
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