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In a hydrolysis reaction, _____, and in this process water is _____.
a polymer is broken up into its constituent monomers; consumed
The type of bond that forms to join monomers (such as sugars and amino acids) into polymers (such as starch and proteins) is a(n) _____ bond.
covalent
Which of the following is a polymer?
cellulose, a plant cell wall component
polysaccharide that is used for storing energy in human muscle and liver cells is _____.
glycogen
Manufacturers make vegetable oils solid or semisolid at room temperature by _____.
adding hydrogen atoms to the double bonds in the fatty acid hydrocarbon chains
Which one of the following is the major energy storage compound of plant seeds?
Oils
Some lipids are formed when fatty acids are linked to glycerol. These subunits are linked together by _____.
Ester Linkages
The fatty acid tails of a phospholipid are _____ because they _____
hydrophobic; have no charges to which water molecules can adhere
The overall three-dimensional shape of a single polypeptide is called the _____.
Tertiary Structure
When a protein is denatured, why does it lose its functionality?
Denaturation breaks the weak bonds, such as hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals interactions, that hold the protein in its 3-dimensional shape. Without the proper shape, the protein cannot function.
To what does the term "polypeptide" refer?
none of the above
The alpha helix and beta pleated sheet represent which level of protein structure?
secondary structure
The peptide bond is _____.
a covalent bond joining amino acids together to form a polypeptide.
The "primary structure" of a protein refers to _____.
the sequence of amino acids
Which type of protein shields a newly forming protein from cytoplasmic influences while it is folding into its functional form?
chaperonins
A glucose molecule is to starch as _____.
a nucleotide is to a nucleic acid
shortage of phosphorus in the soil would make it especially difficult for a plant to manufacture _____.
DNA
Which of the following are pyrimidines found in the nucleic acid DNA?
thymine and cytosine
A nucleotide is made of which of the following chemical components?
a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugar
The subunits (monomers) in cellulose are linked together by _____.
Glycosidic linkages
Which of the following lists ranks these molecules in the correct order by size?
protein, sucrose, glucose, water
x of y cards