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In the overall process of glycolysis and cellular respiration, _____ is oxidized and _____ is reduced
glucose; oxygen
During the reaction C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O, which compound is reduced as a result of the reaction?
Oxygen
Each ATP molecule contains about 1% of the amount of chemical energy available from the complete oxidation of a single glucose molecule. Cellular respiration produces about 38 ATP from one glucose molecule. What happens to the rest of the energy in glucose?
Its converted to heat
A small amount of ATP is made in glycolysis by which of the following processes?
transfer of a phosphate group from a fragment of glucose to ADP by substrate-level phosphorylation
Of the following molecules in the glycolytic pathway (the process of glycolysis), the one with the most chemical energy is _____.
fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
During respiration in a eukaryotic cell, reactions of glycolysis occur _____.
in the cytosol
What is the name of the process in which glucose is converted to pyruvate with the production of ATP and NADH?
Glycolysis
Most of the NADH that delivers electrons to the electron transport chain comes from which of the following?
the citric acid cycle
In preparing pyruvate to enter the citric acid cycle, which of the following steps does occur?
The three steps above are all involved in the metabolism of pyruvate before its entry into the citric acid cycle.
During respiration in eukaryotic cells, reactions of the citric acid cycle occur _____.
In the mitochondrial matrix
How many molecules of ATP are gained by substrate-level phosphorylation from the complete breakdown of a single molecule of glucose in the presence of oxygen?
4
Which of the following accompanies the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA before the citric acid cycle?
formation of CO2 and NADH
The ATP synthase in a human cell obtains energy for making ATP directly from which of the following processes?
the flow of H+ across a membrane through the ATP synthase enzyme
When a poison such as cyanide blocks the electron transport chain, glycolysis and the citric acid cycle soon grind to a halt as well. Which of the following is the best explanation for this?
NAD+ and FAD are not available for glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to continue.
Which of the following sequences correctly describes the synthesis of ATP associated with electron transport in mitochondria?
NADH, electron transport, proton gradient, chemiosmosis
Most of the electrons removed from glucose by cellular respiration are used for which of the following processes?
First two are correct
Which part of the cellular catabolism of glucose requires molecular oxygen (O2) and produces CO2?
the combination of the citric acid cycle and electron transport
During aerobic respiration, molecular oxygen (O2) is used for which of the following purposes?
at the end of the electron transport chain to accept electrons and form H2O
If a compound that allows protons to freely diffuse across membranes is added to cells that are actively metabolizing glucose via cellular respiration, which of the following processes would stop
None of the above (Mitochondria just cannot simply make a proton gradient)
Which one of the following is the source of the energy that produces the chemiosmotic gradient in mitochondria?
electrons moving down the electron transport chain
The overall efficiency of respiration (the percentage of the energy released that is saved in ATP) is approximately _____.
40%
Fermentation is essentially glycolysis plus an extra step in which pyruvate is reduced to form lactate or alcohol and carbon dioxide. This last step _____.
Enables cells to recycle NAD+
In glycolysis in the absence of oxygen, cells need a way to regenerate which compound?
NAD+
In brewing beer, maltose (a disaccharide of glucose) is _____.
Works as the substrate in alcohol fermentation
When protein molecules are used as fuel for cellular respiration, _____ are produced as waste.
Amino group
If significant amounts of materials are removed from the citric acid cycle to produce amino acids for protein synthesis, which of the following will result?
First 3 are correct.
In the overall process of glycolysis and cellular respiration, _____ is oxidized and _____ is reduced.
glucose; oxygen
Which of the following statements provides the best explanation for why the oxidation of organic compounds by molecular oxygen (O2) yields so much energy?
The oxygen atom has a higher affinity for electrons than the carbon atom.
A small amount of ATP is made in glycolysis by which of the following processes?
transfer of a phosphate group from a fragment of glucose to ADP by substrate-level phosphorylation
Most of the NADH that delivers electrons to the electron transport chain comes from which of the following?
the citric acid cycle
In preparing pyruvate to enter the citric acid cycle, which of the following steps does occur?
The three steps above are all involved in the metabolism of pyruvate before its entry into the citric acid cycle.
When a poison such as cyanide blocks the electron transport chain, glycolysis and the citric acid cycle soon grind to a halt as well. Which of the following is the best explanation for this?
NAD+ and FAD are not available for glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to continue.
Which part of the cellular catabolism of glucose requires molecular oxygen (O2) and produces CO2?
the combination of the citric acid cycle and electron transport
Which one of the following best describes the electron transport chain?
Electrons are passed from one carrier to another, releasing a little energy at each step.
Which one of the following is the source of the energy that produces the chemiosmotic gradient in mitochondria
electrons moving down the electron transport chain
Fermentation is essentially glycolysis plus an extra step in which pyruvate is reduced to form lactate or alcohol and carbon dioxide. This last step _____.
enables the cell to recycle NAD+
If muscle cells in the human body consume O2 faster than it can be supplied, which of the following is likely to result?
First three are correct.
x of y cards