by lebe90


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Macronutrients include
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water
______________ yield about 4 kcal/g when completely oxidized, whereas ___________ yield about 9 kcal/g.
Proteins and carbohydrates; fats
Most carbohydrates in the body are found in
muscular tissue.
Carbohydrates function as structural components of other molecules including all of the following except
amino acids
Lipid functions include all of the following except
forming skeletal muscle fibers
______________ constitute the so-called "bad cholesterol."
low densitry lipoproteins
HDL comes from
the liver
Proteins are associated with all these functions except
serving as cofactors for enzymes
High-quality ______________ proteins are those that provide all the essential amino acids.
complete
Vitamin ___________ deficiency is the most common worldwide.
A(retinol)
The overall reaction for aerobic respiration is
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O.
____________ is a product of glycolysis.
Pyruvic acid
Which of these processes is essential for all of the rest to happen?
glycolysis
_____________ happens in the cytoplasm, whereas ___________ happens in the mitochondrion
Glycolysis; the citric acid (Krebs) cycle
Oxygen
is the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration.
The synthesis of glucose from amino acids belongs to a metabolic process called
gluconeogenesis
Glycolysis and aerobic respiration collectively produce up to ____________ ATP per glucose, whereas anaerobic fermentation produces _______________.
38;2
Which of the following compounds yields the most ATP per molecule?
glycogen
The inner membrane of mitochondria contains the protein called ____________, which harnesses the energy created by H+ flow to produce ATP by a process called ___________
ATP synthase; the chemiosmotic mechanism
Most of body's fat is stored as
 triglycerides
Fatty acids are catabolized by a process called
beta oxidation
The first step in using amino acids as fuel is to _____________ them
deaminate
The liver performs all of the following functions except
secretion of digestive enzymes
The liver does not
produce insulin and glucagon
During the postabsorptive state
glycerol is used for gluconeogenesis
During the absorptive state
gluconeogenesis is suppressed
_____________ does not raise total metabolic rate (TMR).
Starvation
Fats should account for about _____________ percent of the daily caloric intake
30
Glycogenesis is stimulated by ____________, and glycogenolysis is stimulated by ____________
insulin; glucagon and epinephrine
A nude body at a room temperature of 21°C (70°F) loses most of its heat by
radiation
The quickest physiological mechanism for achieving moderate heat loss is
cutaneous vasodilation
Shivering warms the body because it increases the rate of
ATP hydrolysis
What metabolic process produces ammonia?
 deamination of glutamic acid
____are short term regulators of appetite, whereas _______ is a longterm regulator.
Peptide YY (PYY)and cholecystokinin (CCK); insulin
What is the healthiest ratio?
high HDL; low LDL
Which of the following would you expect to be in a state of negative nitrogen balance?
patients with muscle atrophy
Minerals are ________, whereas vitamins are _______.
inorganic elements; organic compounds
Incomplete fatty acid oxidation produces ________, which might lead to ______.
ketone bodies; acidosis
Oxidation of a typical fatty acid can yield
129 ATP
______ is secreted during the postabsorptive state.
Growth hormone
People on weight-loss diets often lose weight quickly at first, but then more slowly. This is for all the following reasons expect
the initial weight loss is mostly fat.
Only approximately ____% of the energy in the glucose molecule winds up in ATP, the rest is lost  as body heat.
40
During periods of fasting, fat is said to have a protein-sparing effect because the body
does not oxidize its proteins unless it has consumed its fat reserves first.
The loss of body heat by conduction can be enhanced by
convection.
________is a product of aerobic respiration.
carbon dioxide
Most protein in the body is found in
the muscular system
Most of the NADH contributing energy to ATP synthesis is produced by
the citric acid cycle.
The highest rate of tissue protein turnover happens in the
intestinal mucosa.
The basal metabolic rate should be measured when a person
first rises in the morning.
Heat exhaustion results from
extreme electrolyte loss in the sweat.
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