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Strings - plucked or bowed, 4 or 5 strings
violin 1 & 2, viola, cello & double bass
double stops
play two strings at once
Brass - all made of metal, have mouthpieces, use air, tuning slides, spit valves, generate sound by buzzing
trumpet, french horn, trombone, tuba (newest & biggest)
woodwind - most have double reeds
english horn, oboe, bassoon
Woodwind exceptions
flute/piccolo no reed, clarinet ONE REED
Percussion - 90% of sound is created by hitting
timpani, cymbals, marimba, woodblock, bells
International Classification of Instruments
Hornbustel & Sachs (germans - 1914) scientific and logical way to group instruments
Sound is made by vibrating - all percussion instruments
sound is made by vibrating a tightly stretched membrane - drums/kazoos
sound is made by vibrating strings (piano is one too)
sound is made by vibrating air - all woodwinds and brass
sound is made involving electricity (new category added in 1940)
mebranophone & idiophone
Erhu (Chinese stringed instrument)
concerto - important during baroque
3 part musical work where a solo instrument is accompainied by an orchestra.
concerto grosso
a small group of instruments vs full orchestra
a term that describes two things that are not the same (tall/short)
with - concerto features both CON and CONTRAST. all the musicians are playing just one piece, but they play in contrasting music - solo vs orchestra, themes will contrast also
Early - 450-1450
ancient - before middle ages
476 roman empire ends, 1350 great bubonic plague, 1450 gutenberg prints 1st bible in moveable type
Reaissance (1450 - 1600)
rebirth of interest in ancient greek and roman ideas - age of discovery and exploration (c. columbus 1492)
Baroque - 1600-1750
more science, enlightenment, wonderful secular music, concertos, operas, cantatas, oratorio
Classical 1750-1820
age of balance, clarity and structure - revolution in america and france = lots of wars, HAYDN
Romantic 1820-1900
wild and crazy things, giant performances with giant orchestras and giant singers/pianists BERLIOZ
20th century 1900-2000
modern too hard to describe
contemporary 1975-present
too soon to tell
Vivaldi 1678-1741
over 400 concertos, most famous for the 4 seasons opus 8 no. 1,2,3,4
4 seasons
spring- 3 mvmts (fast, slow, fast)
SPRING fast vs slow movements
fast = ritornello, slow = theme and variation
a common form in fast movements in baroque concertos - main theme returns
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