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What is an example of how gender is embedded in the very structure of modern organizations?
The ideas of a bureaucratic career are based on the male career, with women cast in supporting roles.
Which of the following is a characteristic of a primary group?
Members interact face-to-face.
What is the “iron law of oligarchy”?
Michels’s theory that there is an inherent tendency for power to concentrate at the top of large organizations
What was the trend in youthful voter turnout (among persons ages 18–29) from 1996 to 2008 in the United States?
Increased
Nelson Mandela, the South African leader who spent twenty-seven years in prison, successfully led his African National Congress (ANC) party into overthrowing South Africa’s system of racial segregation known as apartheid. Mandela was able to instill in the members of the ANC a sense of mission or higher purpose, thereby changing the nature of the group itself. Which of the following terms best describes Nelson Mandela?
transformational leader
Which of the following best characterizes how human history has unfolded with regard to primary and secondary groups?
For most of human history, nearly all interactions took place within primary groups, whereas today most of our waking hours are spent within secondary groups.
What is the significance of “informal networks” within bureaucracies?
Organizational leaders, in practice, tend to rely more on unofficial ways of doing things; personal connections are more important than the formally recognized modes of procedure.
According to the text, in 2008 approximately 34 million workers in the United States telecommuted at least one day per month; about half of those workers were “contract commuters,” and the other half were “employee commuters.” What is the difference between “contract commuters” and “employee commuters”?
  1. “Contract commuters” tend to be self-employed or are business owners, whereas “employee commuters” tend to work from home for employers.
According to Meyer and Rowan, formal rules
are often “myths” that people claim to follow, even when their everyday reality is something different.
Why do men tend to have unequal access to powerful networks?
Women’s business, professional, and political networks are fewer and weaker than men’s, so women’s power in these spheres is reduced.
Which of the following would be the best example of a formal organization, as that term is used in the text?
the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (the “Mormons”)
An emphasis on teamwork, consensus-building approaches, and broad-based employee participation are all features of
Japanese corporate management.
Weber created an “ideal type” of bureaucracy—but what is an “ideal type”?
It is an abstract description constructed by accentuating certain features of real cases so as to pinpoint their most essential characteristics.
Which of the following is one of Weber’s characteristics of bureaucracy?
There is a clear-cut hierarchy of authority.
What is the definition of McDonaldization?
the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society
The term for the social knowledge and connections that enable people to accomplish their goals and extend their influence is
social capital.
Which statement best reflects the research findings of Stanley Milgram
Ordinary people will conform to orders given by someone in a position of authority even if those orders have negative consequences.
Ava-Jane has been e-mailing with seven friends all week, planning a surprise party for their friend Nate, who, Ava-Jane knows, hates country-western music. As her friends debate the merits of cover charges, location, and food offerings of various venues, they become increasingly anxious to just settle on some place, and Ava-Jane cannot bring herself to protest when a consensus finally emerges that the party should be held at Jay-Bob’s, a country-western bar. Ava-Jane is buckling under the effects of which of the following?
groupthink
Which kind of group provides standards by which we judge ourselves?
a reference group
According to Max Weber, why is the expansion of bureaucracy inevitable in modern society?
It is the only way of coping with the administrative requirements of a large-scale social system.
A simple collection of people who happen to be together in a particular place and time but do not significantly interact or identify with one another is called
a social aggregate.
What did sociologist Mark Granovetter demonstrate about the importance of weak ties to personal social networks?
Weak ties are particularly key in helping people with higher socioeconomic status gain a new job.
Even though rates of Internet use are creeping up throughout the world, _____ has perhaps the greatest number of Internet users, as an average of 181 million people in this country are online on any given day.
US
According to the text, which of the following is a reason to speculate that volunteerism and social participation may increase in the coming decade?
Proposed programs such as Senior Corps, which promotes community service among retired older adults, and programs to encourage public service among high school students may create a new culture of civic engagement.
You and your dad are having a discussion about how men and women are treated differently by law enforcement. Your dad says that he thinks women are treated more leniently by police officers, especially male police officers. You tell him that his feelings are supported by at least one sociologist, Otto Pollak, who argued that male police officers tend to adopt a __________ toward women who break the law.
“chivalrous” attitude
Which factors do sociologists believe explain why crime rates fell so dramatically in the 1990s?
Aggressive new police tactics to stop the use of guns, the decline of the crack epidemic, and the booming economy reduced crime.
What is organized crime?
forms of activity that have some of the characteristics of orthodox business but are illegal
What is white-collar crime?
crime committed by those in more affluent sectors of society
What is Émile Durkheim’s concept of anomie?
a situation in which no clear standards exist to guide behavior in a social situation, with the result that people find themselves in unprecedented situations and do not know how to react
What is deviance?
a transgression of social norms that are accepted by most people in a community
What are norms?
unwritten rules of social life
Based on what the authors of your textbook explain, which of the following would be most effective in bringing down U.S. crime rates?

  1. addressing social inequalities, unemployment, and poverty

Which of the following statements about violent crime is correct?
Only about 12 percent of all crimes are violent.
According to your textbook, most police time is spent on activities aimed at
processing information, drafting reports, or communicating data.
According to Travis Hirschi, four types of bonds link people to society and law-abiding behavior. Which one of the following is one of the bonds mentioned by Hirschi?
commitment
We know from our study of deviance that not all illegal behavior is deviant and not all deviant behavior is illegal. Suppose whenever you carpool to campus with your friend Maggie, she drives three miles above the speed limit. Which of the following best characterizes the nature Maggie’s actions?
normative but illegal
What is the essence of labeling theory?
Deviance is defined through the process of interaction between deviants and nondeviants
What has been the attitude toward capital punishment in the United States over the past few decades?
More people are in favor of capital punishment.
Which of the following groups is most likely to be affected by corporate crime?
the working class
Why is it so difficult for people to see when they have been victims of corporate crime?
Given the greater distance in time and space between the commission of the crime and the victimization, most people may not even realize that they are victims.
Compared with ordinary crimes against property (robberies, burglaries, larceny, etc.), the amount of money stolen in white-collar crime (tax fraud, insurance fraud, etc.) is
more. White-collar crime involves perhaps forty times as much money as crimes against property.
Blake is a withdrawn, emotionless man in his early thirties. He belongs to that minority of individuals who lack concern for others held by most normal people. Additionally, he delights in violence for its own sake. Based on this assessment, Blake would be considered a
psychopath.
Target hardening is
a technique to make it more difficult for crimes to take place by intervening directly in potential “crime situations.”
The pattern of criminality whereby arrests of men and women peak at around age eighteen or nineteen and decline thereafter is called the
young punk syndrome
The high rate of imprisonment in the United States in recent decades is due in part to which laws, which became very popular in the 1990s?
“three strikes”
What is community policing?
a program that aims at crime prevention rather than law enforcement, through police partnership with the community
Why is the crime rate so much higher in the United States than in other industrialized countries?
It is caused by a combination of ready access to firearms, the influence of the “frontier tradition,” and the subcultures of violence in American cities.
What is the major criticism of Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
they do not include less serious crimes or crimes reported to other agencies such as the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).
Why did Émile Durkheim think a certain amount of crime was functional for society?
  1. It highlights the boundaries of social norms.
According to your textbook, the United States has less than 5 percent of the world’s population, but accounts for _____ of the world’s prisoners.
about one quarter
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