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Why are algal blooms harmful to people
People can get paralytic shellfish poisoning during algal blooms.
Primary production by photosynthetic protists is considered "primary" because
The term primary refers to the initial step of fixing carbon into a useable form for other organisms.

These protists produce chemical energy by fixing carbon dioxide
Chloroplasts arose via
endosymbiosis of cyanobacteria

Chloroplasts share similar DNA to these photosynthetic bacteria which supports the theory
Chloroplasts are..
Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and other eukaryotic organisms that conduct photosynthesis
Which evidence supports the endosymbiotic hypothesis for the origin of the mitochondrion?
Mitochondria have their own ribosomes and manufacture their own proteins.
What evidence supports the hypothesis that the nuclear envelope of eukaryotes arose from infolding of the plasma membrane?
The nuclear membrane and endoplasmic reticulum of modern eukaryotes are continuous.
 dominant plant group at the time that dinosaurs were the dominant animals
Gymnosperms
Question #3 WUTS DIS
Charophycaen... the green algae most closely related to plants.
Plants evolved from green algae about ____  years ago.
475 million
Ferns are..
seedless vascular plants.
The living plants that are most similar to the first plants to bear gametangia are the _____.
Bryophytes
key adaptations enabling plants to colonize land?
Cuticle, stomata, and vascular tissue
gametes are produced by haploid gametophytes using...
mitosis
A ______ sporophyte develops from a zygote that was produced when a ______ sperm fertilized a _____ egg.
diploid, haploid, haploid
Haploid antheridia in ferns develop on....
the underside of mature haploid gametophytes.
The conspicuous part of a fern plant is...
the diploid sporophyte
 directed-pollination hypothesis
Natural selection has favored flower traits (scent, shape, color) that attract pollinating animals.
Charophyceae (common name...) are a type of....
(stoneworts) ;  green algae
Roses are...
angiosperms
What's a stoma?
pore surrounded by specialized guard cells

(plural stomata)

which takes in carbon dioxide from the air (used by the plant for photosynthesis) and releases oxygen and water (byproducts of photosynthesis) through the process of transpiration.
 "gymnosperm" refers to plants....
with naked seeds
______ are the dominant form in vascular plants.
Sporophytes
Pollen grains are....
male gametophytes.
In pines, an embryo is a(n) _____.
immature sporophyte,

The diploid embryo will develop into a seedling and then into a mature pine tree.
In pine trees.. Pollen grains gain entry into the ovule via the...___
micropyle.
the gametophyte tissue that surrounds the pine embryo functions as a...
haploid food reserve, a source of nourishment for the embryo
Of the four haploid cells produced by a pine cone's megasporocyte, how many survive?
One
In the pine, microsporangia form _____ microspores by _____.
haploid, meiosis
Identifying Prokaryotes
-Lack nuclear envelope
-(most) Lack membrane-bound organelles
(mitochondria, chloroplasts, vacuoles, etc)
-“Studio apartment”
-All metabolic reactions take place in same
“room”

How prokaryotes keep metabolic pathways separate?
use membranes instead of to keep metabolic
pathways separate
Prokaryotic cell walls?
Many have them, but they vary in make-up.  Different from eukaryoticcell walls.
Amost all nitrogen in ecosystem becomes available via
nitrogen-fixing bacteria
4 criteria of Robert Koch's germ theory?
Isolate microorganism in sick person
Grow it
inject it in healthy person and he gets sick
find it again in new sick person
Oldest fossils are..
Stromalites - Free living cyanobacteria and calcium carbonate
Morphological variation in bacteria?
Size, Shape, Mobility, Cell Wall
Gram positive versus Gram negative?
Gram positive stain more because they have more peptidogylcan in their cell walls.

Gram negative stain less.
Significance of Gram stain in relation to anti-biotics?
Many anti-biotics attack peptidoglycan cell walls, meaning gram negative are harder to treat.  Also gram negative lipopolysaccharides may be toxic.
Mycoplasmas?
Are bacteria with no cell wall making them resistant to most anti-biotics.
Most diversity amon prokaryotes is...
Metabolic (where they get nutrients and what biochemical pathways are used)
What kind of prokaryotes occasionally live symbiotically with plant roots?
n-fixers
Firmicutes
Do weird photosynthesis
Common in the human gut
Cause:Anthrax, botulism, tetanus, strep
Lactobaciullus ferments yogurt and is a firmicute.
Spirochaetes
Spiral shaped flagellate
Heterotroph
Causes: Lime Disease, syphilis
Actinobacteria
Mostly heterotrophs
Soil nitrogen fixers
Source of many antibiotics
Chlamydiae
Chlamydia – STD & common cause of blindness
All are endosymbionts
(live inside other cells)
Cyanobacteria
All do “normal” photosynthesis
Produced our O2 rich atmosphere!
Some are N-fixers
Some were endosymbionts that evolved into chloroplasts!
Proteobacteria
Extremely diverse group – metabolism, morph., ecology
Includes E. coli – very important to micro- and molecular biology
Lives in swamps and human guts.. archaea
Methanogens

Use CO2 to reduce H2, methane (CH4) produced as byproduct
• Poisoned by O2, so must live in anaerobic  conditions
Genome and genetic variation
• Single large, circular chromosome
• May contain plasmids (small circular DNA)
• Rapid reproductive rate: fast rates of mutation
and genetic change (evolution)
• No sex for prokaryotes: how does genetic variation spread?
– Mutations
– Transformation: cell takes up free DNA from
environment
– Transduction: prokaryote “sex”
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