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Sociological Perspective- stresses that people's social experiences-the groups to which they belong and their experiences within these groups-underlie their behavior.  C. Wright Mills referred to this as the intersection of biography (the individual) and history (social factors that influence the individual). pg 4-5
Origins of Sociology


Sociology emerged in the mid-1800s in western Europe, during the onset of the Industrial Revolution.  Industrialization changed all aspects of human existence-where people lived, the nature of their work, their relationships with each other, and how they viewed life.  Early sociologists who focused on these changes include Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, W.E.B. DuBoise and Harriet Martineau pp5-8.
Early sociology occurred during a time of deep sexism and racism, and both women and minorities faced discrimination.  Few Women received the education required to become sociologists, and those who did tended to focus on social reform or objective social analysis-was won by male university professors who ignored the contributions of women as they wrote the history of sociology.  pp 8-10
From its roots, a tension has run between doing basic sociology and using sociology to reform society.  This tension has never been resolved.  Talcott Parsons and C. Wright Mills took opposite positions.  Parson's focus was on how the components of society are related to one another.  Mills stressed that such a focus does nothing for social reform, which should be the goal of sociologists.  Applied Sociology, is the use of sociology to solve problems, ususally in specific settings, such as at work or in an organization.  The goal of public sociology is to benefit the public through the application of sociological data and the sociological perspective.  pp 10-14
Chapter 4 Social Structure and Social Interaction


Levels of Sociological analysis  The Two Levels that Sociologist Use to analyze


Sociologists use macrosociological and microsociological levels of analysis.  In macrosociology, the focus is placed on large-scale features of social life, while micosociology the focus is on social interaction.  Functionalist           
and conflict theorists tend to use a macrosociological approach, while symbolic interactionists are more likely to use a microsociological approach. pg. 86


Macrosociological Perspective: Social Structure.  How does social structure influence our behavior?  Social structure refers to the social envelope that surrounds us and establishes limits on our behavior  .  Social structure consists of culture, social class, social statuses, roles, groups, and social institutions.  Our location in the social structure underlies our perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors.  Culture lays the broadest framework, while social class divides people according to income, education, and occupational prestige.  Each of us receives ascribed statuses at birth; later we add achieved statuses.  Our behaviors and orientations are further influenced by the roles we play, the groups to which we belong, and our experiences with social institutions.  These components of society work together to help maintain social order pg. 86-90.


What are Social Institutions?  Social institutions are the standard ways that a society develops its basic needs.    Industrial and Post Industrial societies have 10 social institutions- the family, religion, education, economy, medicine, politics, law, science, the military, and the mass media.  From the functionalist perspective, social institutions meet universal group needs, or functional requisites.  Conflict theorists stress how society's elites use social institutions to maintain their privileged positions pg. 90-91


What Social Revolutions have transformed society?  The discovery that animals and plants could be domesticated marked the first social revolution.  This transformed hunting and gathering societies into pastrol and horticultural societies.  The invention of the plow brought about the second social revolution, as societies became agricultural.  The invention of the steam engine, which led to industrial societies, marked the third , leading to the postindustrial or information society. was ushered in by the invention of the microchip Biotech Society, may be emerging . 

What holds society together?  Emile Durkheim, in agriculture societies, people are united by mecahnical solidarity (having similar views and feelings).  With industrialization comes organic solidarity (people depend on one another to do their more specialized jobs).  Ferdinand Tonnies pointed out that the informal means of control in Gemeinschaft (small, intimate) societies are replaced by formal mechanisms in Gesellschaft (larger, more impersonal) societies pg. 96-97


The Microsociological Perspective: Social Interaction in Everyday Life


What is the focus of symbolic interactionism?  Macrosociologists focus on the big picture, symbolic interactionists tend to be microsociologits who focus on face-to-face social interactions.  Symbolic interactionists analyze how people define their worlds, and how their definitions, in turn, influence their behavior pg. 97              
Why do we need sociological research when we have common sense?  Common sense is unreliable.  Research often shows that common sense ideas are limited or false. p. 20


What are the 8 basic steps in sociological research?  1.  Selecting a topic. 2.  Defining the problem. 3. Reviewing the literature. 4.  Formulating a hypothesis. 5.  Choosing a research method. 6. Collecting the data. 7. Analyzing the results. 8. Sharing the results. p. 20-21  

Research Methods

How do sociologists gather data?


To gather data, sociologists use seven research methods, or designs): surveys, participant observation, case studies, secondary analysis, documents, experiments, and unobtrusive measures p 21-29


Ethics Values in Sociological Research


How important are ethics in sociological research?  Ethics are a fundamental concern to sociologists, who are committed to openness, honesty, truth, and protecting their subjects from harm.  The Brajua research on restaurant workers and the Humphreys research on tea rooms illustrate ehtical issues of concern to sociologists. p 30-31            
Chapter 2 Culture


What is Culture?  All human groups possess culture-language, beliefs, values, norms, and material objects that are passed from one generation to the next.  Material culture consists of objects (art, buildings, clothing, weapons, tools).  Nonmaterial(or symbolic culture is a groups ways of thinking and its patterns of behavior.  Ideal culture is a groups ideal values, norms, and goals.  Real culture is people's actual behavior, which often falls short of their cultural ideals. p. 36

What are cultural relativism and ethnocentrism?  People are ethonocentric; that is they use their own culture as a yard stick for judging the ways of others.  In contrast, those who embrace cultural relativism try to understand other cultures on those cultures' own terms. p 36-40


Components of Symbolic Culture

What are the components of nonmaterial culture?  The central component is symbols, anything to which people attach meaning and that they use to communicate with others.  Universally, the symbols of nonmaterial culture are gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, and mores. p 40-42.


Why is language so significant to culture?


Language allows human experience to be goal-oriented, cooperative, and cumulative.  It also lets humans move beyond the present and share a past, future, and other common perspectives.  According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, language even shapes our thoughts and perceptions p 42-45


How do values, norms, snactions, folkways, and mores reflect culture?  All groups have values, standards by which they define what is desirable or undesirable, and norms, rules or expectations about behavior.  Groups use positive sanctions to show approval of those who follow their norms and negative sanctions to show disapproval of those who do not.  Norms that are not strictly enforced are called folkways, whilemores are norms to which groups demand conformity because they reflect core values p 45-46.


Many Cultural Worlds


How do subcultures and counter cultures differ?  A subculture is a groupn whose values Aand related behaviors distinguish its members from the general culture.  A counter culture holds some values that stand in opposition to those of the dominant culture p 46-50. 


Values in U.S. Society


What are some core U.S. values?


Pluralistic Society- is made uo of many groups, each with its own set of values.  p50-53                                  
Chapter 3 Socialization


Feral Children-  isolated and institutionalized children.  The Nature-Nurture question on social interaction. p 60-63.


Socialization into the Self and Mind.

How do we aquire self?  Humans are born with the capacity to develop a self, but the self must be socially constructed; that is, its contents depend on social interaction.  Charles Horton Cooley concept of lookin-glass self, our self develops as we internalize others' reactions to us.  George Herbert Mead identified the ability to take the role of of the other as essential to the development of the self.  Mead concluded that even the mind is a social product.  p 64-66.


How do children develop reasoning skills?


Jean Piaget identified four stages that children go through as they develop the ability to reason: (1) sesorimotor , in which understanding is limited (2) preoperational (3) concrete operational (4) formal operational, or abstract thinking.


Learning Personality, Emotions, and Internal Control ( Freuds View). Viewed personality developing from the id (inborn, self-centered desires) clashing with the demands of society.      The ego develops to balance the id and the super ego, the conscience.  Sociologists , do not examine inborn or subconscious motivations.


How does Socialization influence emotions?


Socialixation influences how we express our emotions but also what emotions we feel.  Socialization into emotions is one of the means by which society produces conformity p 68-69.


Socialization into Gender

Gender Socialization-  sorting males and females into different roles-is primary means of controlling human behavior.  Children receive messages about gender even in infancy.  A society's ideals of sex-linked behaviors are reinforced by its social institutions. p 9-72.

Agents of Socialization

What are the main agents of socialization?

The agents of socialization include the family, neighborhood, religion, day care, school, peer groups, the mass media, and the workplace.  Each has its particular influences in socializing us into becoming full-fledge members of society 72-77.


Resocialization-is the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behavior.  Most resocialization is voluntary, but some, as with residents of total institutions, is involuntary p 77.


Socialization therough the life course


Does socialization end when we enter adulthood?  Socialization occurs throughout the life course.  In industrialized societies, the life , and social class, as well course can be divided into childhood, adolscence, young adulthood, the middle yrs, and the older yrs.  The west is adding                            
  
2 new stages, transitional adulthood, and transitional older yrs.  Life course patterns vary by geography, history, gender, race-ethnicityand social class, as well as by individual experiences such as health and age at marriage. p 78-81.
How do stereotypes affect social interaction ?  Stereotypes are assumptions of what people are like.  When we first meet people, we classify them according to our perceptions of their visible characteristics.  Our ideas about those characteristics guide out behavior toward them.  Our behavior, in turn, may influence them to behave in ways that reinforce our stereotypes. pg 97, 100


Do all human groups share a similar sense of personal space?  In examining how people use physical space, symbolic interactionists stress that we surround   
ourselves with a personal bubble that we carefully
 
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