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____ assigns a level of business importance, availability, sensitivity, security and regulation requirements to data.
data classification
____ means permissions given to a higher level “parent” will also be inherited by a lower level “child.”
inheritance
____ is the process for generating, transmitting, storing, analyzing, and disposing of computer security log data.
log managment
____ servers are intermediate hosts through which Web sites are accessed.
proxy
____ logs can be used to determine whether new IP addresses are attempting to probe the network and if stronger firewall rules are necessary to block them.
firewall
A(n) ____ is an occurrence within a software system that is communicated to users or other programs outside the operating system.
event
____ are operational actions that are performed by the operating system, such as shutting down the system or starting a service.
system events
Logs based on ____ are the second common type of security-related operating system logs.
audit records
____ refers to a methodology for making changes and keeping track of those changes, often manually.
change managment
. ____ monitoring is designed for detecting statistical anomalies.
anomaly based
____ monitoring compares activities against a predefined signature.
signature-based
A ____ baseline is a reference set of data established to create the “norm” of performance for a system or systems.
performance baseline
A ____ monitor is typically a low-level system program that uses a notification engine designed to monitor and track down hidden activity on a desktop system, server, or even personal digital assistant (PDA) or cell phone.
system
Changing the original text to a secret message using cryptography is known as ____.
encryption
Data that is in an unencrypted form is called ____ data.
cleartext
____, also called a one-way hash, is a process for creating a unique “signature” for a set of data.
hashing
____ is a relatively recent cryptographic hash function that has received international recognition and adoption by standards organizations.
whirlpool
Symmetric encryption is also called ____ key cryptography.
private
The simplest type of stream cipher is a ____ cipher. It simply substitutes one letter or character for another.
permutation
A ____ substitution cipher maps a single plaintext character to multiple ciphertext characters.
homoaplhabetic
A ____ cipher rearranges letters without changing them.
transposition
A ____ cipher manipulates an entire block of plaintext at one time.
block
____ was approved by the NIST in late 2000 as a replacement for DES.
aes
____ is a block cipher that processes blocks of 64 bits.
rc2
The ____ algorithm dates back to the early 1990s and is used in European nations.
idea
____ encryption uses two keys instead of one. These keys are mathematically related and are known as the public key and the private key.
asymmetric
The asymmetric algorithm ____ was published in 1977 and patented by MIT in 1983.
rsa
The strength of the ____ algorithm is that it allows two users to share a secret key securely over a public network.
diffie-hellman
A similar program known as ____ is a PGP open-source product.
gpg
Microsoft's ____ is a cryptography system for Windows operating systems that use the Windows NTFS file system.
efs
Cryptography can also be applied to entire disks. This is known as ____ encryption.
whole disk
To protect data stored on a hard drive, Microsoft Windows Vista includes ____ drive encryption.
bitlocker
____ is a hardware-enabled data encryption feature.
bitlocker
____ is essentially a chip on the motherboard of the computer that provides cryptographic services.
tpm
Some organizations set up a subordinate entity, called a ____, to handle some CA tasks such as processing certificate requests and authenticating users.
registration authority
____ digital certificates are issued by a CA or RA directly to individuals.
personal
____ digital certificates are often issued from a Web server to a client, although they can be distributed by any type of server, such as a mail server.
server
When Bob sends one digital certificate to Alice along with his message, that is known as a ____ certificate.
single sided
In one type of trust model, ____ trust, a relationship exists between two individuals because one person knows the other person.
direct
A(n) ____ trust refers to a situation in which two individuals trust each other because each trusts a third party.
third party
The ____ trust model assigns a single hierarchy with one master CA called the root.
hierarchical
The ____ trust model has multiple CAs that sign digital certificates.
distributed
The ____ trust model is the basis for digital certificates issued by Internet users.
distributed
With the ____ trust model, there is one CA that acts as a “facilitator” to interconnect all other CAs.
bridge
The ____ provides recommended baseline security requirements for the use and operation of CA, RA, and other PKI components.
certificate policy
A ____ describes in detail how the CA uses and manages certificates.
certificat practice statement
____ refers to a situation in which keys are managed by a third party, such as a trusted CA.
key escrow
____ is used to connect to an FTP server, much in the same way that HTTP links to a Web server.
ftp
____ is a protocol that guarantees privacy and data integrity between applications communicating over the Internet.
tls
The TLS ____ Protocol allows authentication between the server and the client and the negotiation of an encryption algorithm and cryptographic keys before any actual data is transmitted.
handshake
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