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Which event during the evolution of land plants probably made the synthesis of secondary compounds most beneficial?
The rise of herbivory
If one were attempting to catalog the largest amount of genetic diversity among plant-like organisms, then which group of organisms should one choose?
Viridiplantae
Which of these should have had gene sequences most similar to the charophycean that was the common ancestor of the land plants?
Early bryophytes
Plant spores give rise directly to...
gametophytes.
Which of the following statements is true of archegonia?
They may temporarily contain sporophyte embryos.
Which of the following is a true statement about plant reproduction?
Both male and female bryophytes produce gametangia.
Assuming that they all belong to the same plant, arrange the following structures from smallest to largest. 1.      antheridia 2.     gametes 3.     gametophytes 4.     gametangia
3.     gametophytes

4.     gametangia 1.      antheridia 2.     gametes 1.      antheridia 2.     gametes
The leaflike appendages of moss gametophytes may be one- to two-cell-layers thick.  Consequently, which of these is least likely to be found associated with such appendages?
Stomata
Each of the following is a general characteristic of bryophytes except...
vascular tissue.
The following are all true about the life cycle of mosses except...
gametes are directly produced by meiosis.
Beginning with the germination of a moss spore, what is the sequence of structures that develop after germination? 1.     embryo 2.     gametes 3.     sporophyte 4.     protonema 5.     gametophore
4.     protonema 5.     gametophore

2.     gametes 1.     embryo

3.     sporophyte
Bryophytes may feature all of the following at some time during their existence except...
microphylls.
A fungal infection damages all calyptra, preventing them from performing their function.  Which process will be directly hindered as a result?
Broadcast of spores
Two, small, poorly drained lakes lie close to each other in a northern forest.  The basins of both lakes are composed of the same geologic substratum.  One lake is surrounded by a dense Sphagnum mat; the other is not.  Compared with the pond without Sphagnum, the pond surrounded by the moss should have...
a lower pH. .. lower numbers of bacteria. .. reduced rates of decomposition.
If you are looking for structures that transfer water and nutrients from a bryophyte gametophyte to a bryophyte sporophyte, then on which part of the sporophyte should you focus your efforts?
The foot
Bryophytes never formed forests (mats maybe, but not forests) because...
they lack lignified vascular tissue.
In which of the following does the sporophyte depend on the gametophyte for nutrition?
Moss 
All things being equal, except the number of sporangia initially present, which of the following land plants should be most able to continue producing spores following an episode of herbivory that leaves the plant alive?
Whisk fern
Of the following list, flagellated (swimming) sperm are generally present in which groups? 1.     Lycophyta 2.     Bryophyta 3.     Angiosperms 4.     Chlorophyta 5.     Pterophyta
1.     Lycophyta 2.     Bryophyta 4.     Chlorophyta 5.     Pterophyta
The following characteristics all helped seedless plants become better-adapted to land except...
a dominant gametophyte.
A botanist discovers a new species of plant in a tropical rain forest. After observing its anatomy and life cycle, the following characteristics are noted: flagellated sperm, xylem with tracheids, separate gametophyte and sporophyte generations, and no seeds. This plant is probably most closely related to...
ferns.
The sori of ferns are both homologous and analogous to which structures?
Cones (strobili) of gymnosperm sporophytes
A major change that occurred during the evolution of plants from their algal ancestors was the origin of a branched sporophyte.  What advantage would branched sporophytes provide in this stage of the life cycle?
Increased spore production
Sporophylls can be found in which of the following?
Pterophytes
Which of the following types of plants would not have been present in the forests that became coal deposits?
Pine trees
If a fern gametophyte is a hermaphrodite (that is, has both male and female gametangia on the same plant), then it...
belongs to a species that is homosporous.
This student has probably found a(n)...
club moss sporophyte.
Besides oil, what other chemical should be detected in substantial amounts upon chemical analysis of these small spheres?
Sporopollenins
Closer observation reveals that these small spheres are produced on tiny extensions of the stem, each of which helps compose the pinecone-like structure. Research would reveal that the cone-like structures are called ________, whereas the small, spore-producing extensions of the stem are called ________.
strobili; sporophylls
To which taxon does this organism seem to belong?
Lycophyta
A dissection of the interior of the stem should reveal...
lignified vascular tissues.
Assuming that they all belong to the same plant, arrange the following structures from largest to smallest (or from most inclusive to least inclusive). 1.     spores 2.    sporophylls 3.    sporophytes 4.     sporangia
3.    sporophytes

2.    sporophylls

4.     sporangia

1.     spores
If one were building a large, log structure during the Carboniferous period, which plant type(s) would be suitable sources of logs?
horsetails and lycophytes .
Which of the following is true of seedless vascular plants?
Whole forests were once dominated by large, seedless vascular plants.
Working from deep geologic strata toward shallow geologic strata, what is the sequence in which fossils of these groups should make their first appearance? 1.     charophyceans 2.     single-celled green algae 3.     hornworts 4.     plants with a dominant sporophyte
2.     single-celled green algae

1.     charophyceans

3.     hornworts 4.     plants with a dominant sporophyte
Angiosperms are most closely related to...
gymnosperms.
Which of these was the dominant plant group at the time that dinosaurs were the dominant animals?
Gymnosperms
Which of these characteristics is shared by algae and seed plants?
Chloroplasts
In the moss life cycle ________ cells within a sporangium undergo ________ to produce ________ spores.
diploid; meiosis; haploid
Where do fern antheridia develop?
On the underside of the gametophyte
Which of the following is not evidence that charophyceans are the closest algal relatives of plants?
Similar cell wall structure
Which of the following characteristics of plants is absent in their closest relatives, the charophycean algae?
Alternation of multicellular generations
Which of the following is a clade (monophyletic group)?
Seedless vascular plants and seed plants
Which of the following characteristics do mosses, liverworts, and hornworts share?
Reproductive cells in gametangia; embryos
Which of the following is not common to all phyla of vascular plants?
The development of seeds
A heterosporous plant is one that...
produces microspores and megaspores, which give rise to male and female gametophytes.
Which of the following is diploid?
A cell that is part of the stalk set(s) of a moss sporophyte
Microphylls are characteristic of which types of plants?
Lycophytes
During the Carboniferous period, the dominant plants were...
giant lycophytes, horsetails, and ferns.
Which of the following is a land plant that produces flagellated sperm and has a sporophyte-dominant life cycle?
fern
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