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Vertebrates and tunicates share...
a notochord and a dorsal, hoollow nerve cord.
What is one characteristic that separates chordates from all other animals?
Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
Which of these are characteristics of all chordates during at least a portion of their development?
A dorsal, hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal clefts, post-anal tail.
Pharyngeal slits appear to have functioned first as...
suspension-feeding devices.
Unlike eutherians, both monotremes and marsupials...
have some embryonic developmentoutside the mother's uterus.
Which extant chordate group is postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance?
Cephalochordata
As humans diverged from other primates, which of the following appeared first?
A partial erect stance
Studies on DNA indicate which of the following?
Homo sapiens originated in Africa.
Based on current evidence, which of the following statements best describes the evolution of humans?
Humans and apes diverged from a common ancestor about 5-10 million years ago.
The common ancestors of all humans alive today lived in Africa until about...
50,000 years ago.
The common ancestor of all these chordate groups except the ________ probably had paired appendages.
Lampreys
The earliest known mineralized structures in vertebrates are associated with which function?
Feeding
The exoskeletons of marine arthropods are made of calcified ________, and the endoskeletons of vertebrates are mostly composed of calcified ________.
Chitin; cartilage
How are primates different from all other mammals?
opposable thumbs in many species
In which vertebrates is fertilization exclusively internal?
reptiles and mammals
Which of these hominid traits seems to have occurred before the others?
bipedalism
In which extant class did jaws occur earliest?
Chondrichthyes
According to one hypothesis, the jaws of vertebrates were derived by the modification of...
 skeletal rods that had supported pharyngeal (gill) slits.
What is a distinctive feature of the chondrichthyans?
Cartilaginous endoskeleton
To which of these are the scales of chondrichthyans most closely related in a structural sense?
Chondrichthyan teeth 
Which of these statements accurately describes a similarity between sharks and fishes?
They have a lateral line that is sensitive to changes in water pressure.
Which group's members had (have) both lungs and gills during their adult lives?
lungfishes
The most primitive hominid discovered to date...
walked on two legs.
Which are the most abundant and diverse of the extant vertebrates?
bony fishes
The bony fishes are characterized by...
a bony endoskeleton, operculum, and usually a swim bladder.
Which of these would a paleontologist be most likely to do in order to determine whether a fossil represents a reptile or a mammal?
Examine the teeth.
All of the following belong to the lobe-fin clade, except...
chondrichthyans.
Structures that are made of keratin include which of the following?
Avian feathers reptilian scales mammalian hair
Differentiation of teeth is greatest in...
mammals.
A trend in the evolution of the earliest tetrapods was...
feet with digits.
Examination of the fossils of Archaeopteryx reveals that, in common with extant birds, it had...
feathers.
Why is the discovery of the fossil Archaeopteryx significant?  It supports the...
phylogenetic relatedness of birds and reptiles.
During chordate evolution, what is the sequence (from earliest to most recent) in which the following structures arose? 1.    amniotic egg 2.   paired fins 3.   jaws 4.   swim bladder 5.   four-chambered heart
2.   paired fins 3.   jaws 4.   swim bladder

1.    amniotic egg 5.   four-chambered heart
________ are the oldest known primate group.
Prosimians
Why is the amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary breakthrough?  It...
allows incubation of eggs in a terrestrial environment.
Which era is known as the "age of reptiles"?
Mesozoic
Which of these characteristics added most to vertebrate success in relatively dry environments?
The amniotic egg
From which of the following groups are snakes most likely descended?
lizards
When did dinosaurs and pterosaurs become extinct?
Cretaceous "crisis"
Which of the following are the only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs?
birds
the first of these species to have been adapted for long-distance bipedalism
H. ergaster
the first of these species to craft stone tools
H. habilis
the first of these species to show a trend toward reduced sexual dimorphism
H. ergaster
the first of these species to have some members migrate out of Africa
H. erectus
 the species currently thought to be the direct ancestor of  H. neanderthalensis
H. heidelbergensis
the species that demonstrates symbolic thought, art, and full-blown language
H. sapiens
Which is the most inclusive (most general) group, all of whose members have foramina magna centrally positioned in the base of the cranium?
hominids
Which term is most nearly synonymous with "apes"?
hominoids
Which is a genus that has only one extant species?
Homo
Which is the most inclusive (most general) group, all of whose members have fingernails instead of claws?
primates
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