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Your research project involves characterizing the expression pattern of a nuclear pore protein. After using immunohistochemistry to fluorescently label the protein, you decide that you would like to capture the data as a 3-D image. Which microscope should you use?
confocal microscope
Alcohol consumption adversely affects the synthesis of molecules involved in the protein degradation, which can eventually lead to liver damage. Given this information, which organelle in liver cells is most directly affected?
lysosome
Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome is a very rare disease that is caused by several different mutations in the lamin A gene. If you were to culture cells from patients who have Progeria, what effect might you expect to see over time?
the nucleus would become misshapen
Given what is known about the minimal essential functions of cellular life, if you could create an artificial cell, which of the following structures must you include?
ribosome
If you were a protein destined to reach the plasma membrane and you were making your way through the Golgi when suddenly Golgi trafficking was blocked at the trans face, what would happen to you?
you would be stuck in the golgi
a mutation in an integrin protein would likely affect all of the following except
communication between the nucleus and cytoskeleton
which of the following associations is unlike the others?
lysosome-peroxisome
Animal cells excrete glycoproteins outside of the plasma membrane to produce an _________ _________ which is directly linked to the cytoskeleton.�
extracellular matrix
Small cells function more effectively, because as cells become larger their surface area to volume ratio
decreases
The proteins of the plasma membrane are in large part responsible for the cell's ability to interact with its environment. They act as or are involved in all of the following except
packaging DNA
ribosomes are
large molecular aggregates of protein and RNA
The eukaryotic organelle that is directly involved in the transport of proteins synthesized on the surface of the rough ER is called
golgi complex
in eukaryotes, mitochondria are the organelles primarily involved in
energy release/capture
nucleolus of the nucleus is the site of
ribosome assembly
Chromosomes can be condensed into compact structures, visible with the light microscope, but usually only
during cell division
mitochondria and chloroplasts are the other organelles besides the nucleus that contain
DNA
the functions of the cytoskeleton include all of the following except
ribosome assembly
the electron microscope can magnify an object typically
tens of thousand times bigger
A cell biologist treats a cell so that oxygen cannot diffuse across the membrane. Which organelle will be directly affected?
mitochondria
which of the following is not visible by use of a light microscope?
large virus
Which of the following protein classes are not found as membrane proteins?�
hormones
Membrane proteins serve many functions. One of the functions is transportation of substances across the membrane. If a cell biologist placed cells into an environment in which a chemical has been added that blocks the function of these transport proteins, which process will be blocked?
active transport
Facilitated diffusion is an important method for cells in obtaining necessary molecules and removing other ones. Requirements for facilitated diffusion include which of the following?
The carrier molecule must be specific to the molecule that is transported. The direction of movement is always with the concentration gradient, never against the gradient
One day during the summer you and some friends made ice cream using an electric ice cream maker. A few days later you noticed a yellow circle of dead grass where the ice cream freezer had been placed. What happened?
The ice and salt mixture was hyperosmotic to the grass cells and caused the yellow circle of dead grass
As a scientist you perform an experiment in which you create an artificial cell with a selectively permeable membrane through which only water can pass. You put a 5M solution of glucose into the cell and you place that into a beaker of 10M glucose. What observations do you expect to see?
water moves out of the cell
Cyclodextrins can be used to remove cholesterol from a membrane. Which of the following is the most likely effect of cyclodextrin treatment?�
a disruption of lipid rafts
which of the following does not influence membrane fluidity?
hydrogen bonding of water holding the membrane together
GABAA receptors play an essential role in neurotransmission in the central nervous system. In response to the appropriate signal, these receptors open up and allow Cl- to flow into the cell. Given this information, GABAA receptors can be classified as a
gated ion channel
Incubation of cells at 20�C blocks the release of proteins from the trans-Golgi. Under such conditions, you would expect to see
a decrease in exocytosis
While eating lobster for dinner one night you begin thinking about the fact that this type of marine invertebrate is isosmotic with respect to the surrounding seawater. Your friend asks what would happen if the lobster you were eating had not been caught, but instead was moved to a bay with a slightly lower concentration of salt. You reply that in order for the lobster to be isosmotic with respect to new environment,
it regulates its internal concentration of solutes to match that of its new environment
If a cell has a normal osmotic pressure of 4500 mmHg and is placed into a solution with an osmotic pressure of 3500 mmHg, what will happen to the cell?
the cell will lose water and its osmotic pressure will decrease
During neuronal signaling, a change in membrane potential will cause sodium channels to open and let Na+ ions diffuse down their concentration gradient into the cell. Which of the following helps establish the concentration gradient necessary for this process to occur?
NA+/K+ pump
If you were a very thirsty cell, which process would you use to take in some nutrients secreted by one of your neighbors?
pinocytosis
Membrane proteins are not very soluble in water, because they possess long stretches of non-polar amino acids that
are hydrophobic
If a cell has the same concentration of dissolved molecules as of its outside environment, the cell's condition is called as being
isotonic
The cell's transactions with the environment mediated by its plasma membrane include all of the following except
directing the synthesis of various food-digesting proteins
which of the following properties is not true of membrane phospholipids?
only the saturated fatty acids are always present
the fluid nature of the membranes is attributed to a lateral movement of
phospholipid molecules
On the outer surface of the plasma membrane there are marker molecules that identify the cell-type. Often these molecules are
carbohydrate chains
�If two solutions have unequal concentrations of a solute, the solution with the lower concentration is called
hypotonic
In bacteria, fungi, and plants the high internal pressure generated by osmosis is counteracted by the mechanical strength of their
cell walls
cell-walled organisms cannot carry out
endocytosis
The type of diffusion that is specific and passive, and which becomes saturated if all of the protein carriers are in use is
facilitated diffusion
The type of transport that is specific, which requires specific carrier molecules and energy is
active transport
in a single sodium-potassium pump cycle, ATP is used up with the result of
3 sodium ions leave and 2 potassium ions enter
Each pigment molecule has a characteristic ________ spectrum.
absorption
Plants and algae use a two-stage _________ in the light dependent reactions.
photosystem
The Calvin cycle is driven by ATP and _____ produced in the light reactions.
NADPH
The ______ plants utilize a specialized carbon fixation enzyme and a unique cell structure to reduce the problems of photorespiration.
C4
5. The process whereby protons accumulate on one side of a membrane and can flow back across the membrane through ATP synthase resulting in ATP production is called _________________.
chemiosmosis
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