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1. What is lymph?
Interstitial fluid that has passed into the lymphatic vessels
2. What is the body’s ability to ward off disease termed?
Resistance
3. What is the difference between a lymph node and a lymph nodule?
Nodes are encapsulated, nodules are not
4. What is the largest single mass of lymphatic tissue in the body?
Spleen
5. What is the spread of disease such as cancer from one organ to another not directly connected to it?
Metastasis
6. What is the first line of defense for the body?
Skin and mucous membranes
7. Natural Killer cells are part of which line of defense?
Second line of defense
8. What are the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation?
Redness, heat, pain, swelling
9. What is the term for abnormally high body temperature?
Fever
10. The substances that are recognized as foreign and provoke immune responses are called?
Antigens
11. Where does the right lymphatic duct empty?
The right subclavian vein
12. What is the cisterna chyli?
Dilation of the thoracic duct as it empties into the left subclavian vein
13. What are the primary lymphatic organs?
Thymus gland and red bone marrow
14. What are the secondary lymphatic organs?
Lymph nodes, spleen, lymphatic nodules
15. What is the difference between specific and non-specific resistance?
Specific develops slowly due to the time it takes to activate the specific lymphocytes that have to combat certain pathogens. Non-specific is general but fast
16. What is resistance?
The ability to ward off disease
17. What is the function of the lymphatic system?
Drain interstitial fluid, transport dietary lipids, and facilitate immune response
18. Where are lymphatic capillaries located?
Throughout the body EXCEPT in avascular tissues, the CNS, portions of the spleen, and red bone marrow
19. The thoracic duct begins as a dilation called what?
Cysterna chyli
20. What are the 3 types of tonsils?
Pharyngeal tonsils, palatine tonsils, lingual tonsils
21. What are natural killer cells?
Lymphocytes that lack the membrane molecules that identify B cells and T cells yet have the ability to kill a wide variety of infectious microbes plus certain spontaneously arising tumor cells
22. What is the most abundant immunoglobulin?
IgG
23. What do the thoracic and right lymphatic ducts drain into?
The L and R subclavian veins
24. What are the 3 steps of inflammation?
Vasodilation, phagocyte immigration, tissue repair
25. What kind of immunity involves gamma globulins?
Artificial acquired passive immunity
26. What lymphatic organ can you live without?
Spleen
27. Where is the thymus gland located?
Between the sternum and the large blood vessels above the heart; it is the site of T cell maturation
28. What is the sequence of the flow of lymph?
Blood caps - interstitial spaces - lymphatic capillaries - lymphatic vessels - lymphatic ducts - subclavian veins
29. What is leukocytosis?
An increase in white blood cells
30. What are antigens?
Chemical substances that are recognized as foreign by the immune system
31. What are antibodies?
Proteins that combine specifically with the antigen that triggered its production (produced/secreted by plasma cells)
32. How many heavy chains do antibodies have? Light chains?
2 of each
33. What is an inflammation of the parotid glands called?
Mumps
34. Immunity passed from mother to fetus/baby is:
Natural acquired passive immunity
35. HIV Patient #1 was employed as what?
International flight attendant
36. What is lymph edema?
Accumulation of lymph producing subcutaneous swelling
37. What are pathogens?
Disease producing microbes like bacteria and viruses
38. After fluid passes from interstitial spaces into lymphatic vessels it is known as _______.
Lymph
39. What is chemotaxis?
The chemical attraction of phagocytes to a particular location
40. What is adenitis?
Inflammation of lymph nodes
42. What is prolactin?
A hormone that initiates milk production after a baby is born
43. What do the beta cells in the pancreas secrete?
Insulin
44. What is acromegaly?
Human growth hormone keeps being secreted even thought the epiphyseal plate is sealed
45. Categorically, what are the 2 types of resistance?
Specific and non-specific
46. What is a primary lymphatic organ?
It provides the appropriate environment for stem cells to mature into B cells and T cells
47. Where is lysozyme found?
Tears, saliva, nasal secretions, tissue fluids
48. What produces and secretes antibodies?
Plasma cells
49. What are the 3 types of antimicrobial proteins?
Interferon, complement, tranferin
50. What is the common name for specific resistance?
Immunity
51. Differentiate between cancerous and infectious lymph nodes.
Cancer: hard, immovable, non-tender; Infectious: soft, movable, tender
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