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Accounting is the organizational function concerned with recording financial transactions, paying bills, collecting revenue from customers, and producing financial statements.
Acquired Needs Theory
David McClelland's acquired needs theory states that people are motivated by experiences acquired throughout their lives. Overall, humans are motivated to excel in achievement, affiliation, or power.
Active Training Methods
Learning experiences focused on the learner, known as active training methods, include such methods as case studies, CBT, and programmed instruction.
Actual Deferral Percentage (ADP) test
ERISA requires an ADP test to ensure that highly compensated employees (HCEs) do not receive greater benefits from a 401(k) plan than those received by other employees.
Ad Hoc Arbitrator
An ad-hoc arbitrator is a person selected to hear a single case between two parties in conflict.

ADDIE model
ADDIE is an acronym that describes the five elements of the instructional design process: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.
Administrative Services Only (ASO) plan
An ASO is a benefit plan utilized by some self-funded organizations. These organizations contract with an insurance company to manage and pay claims.
Adverse Impact
An adverse impact is any negative result of an employment action.
Affirmative Action Plan (AAP)
An AAP analyzes a workforce to determine whether protected classes are underutilized in different job groups and describes how an organization will address any underutilization that exists.
Agency Shop Clause
An agency shop clause in a labor contract specifies that all employees must either join the union or pay union dues if they choose not to join the union.
Ally Doctrine
If an employer whose workers are on strike asks a neutral employer to produce the work that would normally be performed by the striking workers, the ally doctrine states that the neutral employer becomes an ally of the struck employer and is therefore a legitimate target of a picket line.
Alter Ego Doctrine
When two businesses have interrelated operations, central control of labor relations, common management, and common ownership, they are considered alter ego employers, and the NLRB may determine that employees of the alter ego employer are part of the bargaining unit.
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
ADR covers a range of methods used to solve disagreements without litigation. These alternatives are often able to resolve problems with less animosity than occurs when a lawsuit is filed, and at a far less cost to the parties.
Andragogy, the study of how adults learn, is education in which the learner participates in decisions about what will be taught and how it will be delivered.
Applicant Tracking System (ATS)
An applicant tracking system is an automated approach for keeping track of job applicants from the receipt of an application or resume to final disposition.
Auditory Learners
One of the three learnings styles, auditory learners retain information best when they hear it.
Authoritarian Leaders
Authoritarian leaders tell people what to do and can be effective in emergencies or when productivity is the organization's primary concern.
Authorization Card
Authorization cards are the means by which the NLRB determines that there is sufficient support for a union to hold an election.  The NLRB will hold an election if 30 percent of the eligible employees in the anticipated bargaining unit sign the authorization cards.
Average Bias
Average bias is characterized by a group of candidates (in a selection process) or employees (in a performance management process) who are all rated about the same because the interviewer or reviewer has difficulty deciding which one is best.
Balance Sheet
A balance sheet provides a snapshot of an organization's financial condition on a specific day, usually the last day of the accounting period. Information on the balance sheet includes the company's assets, liabilities, and equity.
Balanced Scorecard
A balanced scorecard is a business measurement tool utilized by managers to track information in four key areas: financial results, customer results, key internal processes, and how people are hired and trained to achieve organization goals.
Base Pay
Base pay is the preset salary or hourly rate paid to an employee for performing the job responsibilities.
Behavior Evaluation Method
The third level of training evaluation model developed by Donald Kirkpatrick, behavior evaluation uses a test to measure how well participants learned the information presented in the training.
Behavioral Reinforcement
B.F. Skinner's study of behavioral reinforcement or behavioral modification revealed that behavioral could be changed through the use of four intervention strategies: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction.
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)
The BARS system is a performance appraisal system that identifies key job requirements from a job description and creates dimensions and anchor statements that are used to rate employee performance.
Benchmark Positions
Benchmark positions are jobs commonly found across organizations regardless of size or industry.
Bias is a personal preference toward a candidate or employee for reasons that are not job-related. Bias interferes with the ability of an interviewer or appraiser to objectively evaluate an individual's performance on the job or in an interview.
Binding Arbitration
Binding arbitration is a way of resolving conflicts without resorting to work stoppages. The parties to a dispute agree to accept the arbitrator's decision as final.
Biological Health Hazard
A biological health hazard is a type of environmental health hazard that spreads infectious diseases to people and is caused by many factors, including unsanitary conditions in a food preparation area or serious diseases contracted through needle-stick injuries.
Blocking Charge Bar
One of the bars to union representation elections, a blocking charge, is based on pending charges of unfair labor practices that prevent unions from petitioning the NLRB for an election.
Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ)
A BFOQ is a job requirement that an employee be a particular religion, sex, or national origin that is reasonably necessary to business operations. For instance, is is assumed that an opening for a Baptist minister at a local Baptist church would be filled by a minister who is actually a person who celebrates the Baptist religion and not, say, the Episcopal religion.
Bonus Plan
A bonus plan is a compensation strategy that pays employees additional compensation to encourage desired behaviors or reward results achieved. Examples of bonuses include discretionary performance bonuses, referral bonuses, patent awards, and employee-of-the-month rewards.
Broadbanding is a job classification method that consolidates multiple pay grades into a few broad "bands" with a wide range between the minimum and maximum of the band.
Business Continuity Planning
Business continuity planning is a proactive strategy to protect an organization from emergencies and other circumstances; it results in a written document describing possible disruptions to operations and actions to be taken to minimize those disruptions and assigns responsibility for executing the plan to specific individuals.
Business Process Outsource (BPO)
BPO is the practice of engaging a third-party provider to assume operational control of and responsibility for a particular business function.
Call-back Pay
Call-back pay is compensation paid to employees when they are called to work before or after their scheduled work time.
Career Portfolio
A career portfolio is a talent management tool that gathers information about an employee's education, skills, job-related training, completed development programs, performance appraisals, awards, noteworthy accomplishments, and samples of work in order to plan development opportunities and focus employees on long-term career goals and strategies.
Case Study
A case study is a training tool that reproduces a realistic situation providing learners with the opportunity to analye the circumstances just as though it was one encountered in the course of business. Case studies provide learners with the opportunity to investigate, study, and analyse a situation.
Cash Balance Plan
A cash balance plan combines some elements of both defined benefit and defined contribution plans. These plans are regulated as deferred benefit plans but are less costly for employees.
Cause and Effect Diagram
A cause and effect diagram is a quality management tool developed by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa that organizes information for use in brainstorming sessions.
Centralized Organization
In a centralized organization, decision-making authority is held at senior levels or is concentrated at corporate headquarters.
Certification-year Bar
One of the bars to union representation elections, the NLRB will not order an election for at least one year after certifying a bargaining representative.
Certiorari is a Latin term used when the Supreme Court agrees to review a case so that all lower courts are "certain" how to interpret the law.
Change Agent
A change agent is a person who listens to various stakeholders' concerns during the change process and moves them toward acceptance of and commitment to the change.
Change Process Theory
Kurt Lewin's change process theory describes three stages for change: unfreeze, move, and refreeze.
Check Sheet
A check sheet is the simplest quality management tool, often used to gather data and count items. A check sheet consists of a list of items; each time an item occurs, a check mark is placed next to it.
Chemical Health Hazard
A chemical health hazard is a type of environmental health hazard that can cause illness or injury.
Childcare Discrimination
Childcare discrimination, also known as family responsibility discrimination, occurs when employees who must care for elders or children suffer adverse tangible employment actions because of these responsibilities. The EEOC applies existing discrimination law to claims when possible, often using FMLA requirements.
Classification Method
The classification method of a job evaluation identifies benchmark positions, places them in salary grades, and then matches positions with similar KSAs and slots them into the same grade.
Cliff Vesting
Cliff vesting is a form of delayed benefit vesting in which participants become 100 percent invested after a specified period of time. ERISA sets the maximum vesting period at five years for qualified plans.
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