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Gender differences in the prevalence of depression may be partly due to the fact that when stressful experiences occur:
women tend to think, while men tend to act
The criteria for classifying behavior as psychologically disordered
vary by culture and with time
Most mental health workers today take the view that disordered behaviors
arise from the interaction of nature and nurture
The view that all behavior arises from the interaction of heredity and environment is referred to as the __________ approach.
biopsychosocial
Which of the following is the most pervasive of the psychological disorders?
schizophrenia
Which of the following is NOT true concerning depression?
Most depressive episodes appear not to be preceded by any particular factor or event.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding schizophrenia?
It occurs more frequently in lightly populated areas.
Evidence of environmental effects on psychological disorders is seen in the fact that certain disorders, such as __________, are universal, whereas others, such as _________, are culture-bound.
depression; anorexia nervosa
The effect of drugs that block receptors for dopamine is to
alleviate schizophrenia symptoms
The diagnostic reliability of DSM-IV-TR
is relatively high
Because of some troubling thoughts, Carl recently had a PET scan of his brain that revealed excessive activity in the anterior cingulate area.  Carl's psychiatrist believes that Carl suffers from:
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
The term insanity refers to:
legal definitions
Phobias and obsessive-compulsive behaviors are classified as
anxiety disorders
According to the social-cognitive perspective, a person who experiences unexpected aversive events may develop helplessness and manifest a(n)
mood disorder
Which of the following was presented in the text as evidence of biological influences on anxiety disorders?
All of these:
  • Identical twins often develop similar phobias
  • Brain scans of persons with OCD reveal unusually high activity in the anterior cingulate cortex
  • Drugs dampen fear-circuit activity in the amygdala also alleviate OCD
Most of the hallucinations of schizophrenia patients involve the sense of:
hearing
When expecting to be electrically shocked, people with an antisocial personality disorder, as compared with normal people, show:
less fear and less autonomic arousal
Hearing voices would be a(n) __________; believing that you are Napoleon would be a(n)_______.
Hallucination;delusion
In treating depression, a psychiatrist would probably prescribe that would:
increase levels of norepinephrine
When schizophrenia is slow to develop, called _________ schizophrenia, recovery is ________.
Process; unlikely
Joe has an intense, irrational fear of snakes.  He is suffering from a(n)
Phobia
As a child, Monica was criticized severely by her mother for not living up to her expectations.  This criticism was always followed by a beating with a whip.  As an adult, Monica is generally introverted and extremely shy.  Sometimes, however, she acts more like a young child, throwing tantrums if she doesn't get her way.  At other times, she is a flirting, happy-go-lucky young lady.  Most likely, Monica is suffering from:
Dissociative identity disorder
Bob has never been able to keep a job.  He's been in and out of jail for charges such as theft, sexual assault, and spousal abuse.  Bob woudl most likely be diagnosed as having:
an antisocial personality
Julia's psychologist believes that Julia's fear of heights can be traced to a conditioned fear she developed after falling from a ladder.  This explanation reflects a __________ perspective.
learning
Before he can study, Rashid must arrange his books, pencils, paper, and other items on his desk so that they are "just so." The campus counselor suggests taht Rashid's compulsive behavior may help alleviate his anxiety about failing in school, which reinforces the compulsive actions.  This explanation of obsessive-compulsive behavior is most consistent with which perspective?
Learning
Sharon is continually tense, jittery, and apprehensive for no specific reason.  She would probably be diagnosed as suffering a(n)
generalized anxiety disorder
Jason is so preoccupied with staying clean that he showers as many as 10 times each day.  Jason would be diagnosed as suffering form a(n)
obsessive-compulsive disorder
Although she escaped from war-torn Bosnia two years ago, Zheina still has haunting memories and nightmares.  Because she is also severely depressed, her therapist diagnoses her condition as:
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Claiming that she heard a voice commanding her to warn other people that eating is harmful, Sandy attempts to convince others in a restaurant not to eat.  The psychiatrist to whom she is referred finds that Sandy's thinking and speech are often fragmented and incoherent.  In addition, Sandy has an unreasonable fear that someone is "out to get her" and consequently trusts no one.  Her condition is most indicative of:
schizophrenia
Irene occasionally experiences unpredictable episodes of intense dread accompanied by heart palpitations and a sensation of smothering.  Since her symptoms have no apparent cause, they would probably be classified as indicative of:
panic attacks
To which of the following is a person MOST likely to acquire a phobia?
heights
Dr. Jekyll, whose second personality was Mr. Hyde, had a(n) _______ disorder.
dissociative
For the past six months, a woman has complained of feeling isolated from others, dissatisifed with life, and discouraged about the future.  This woman could be diagnosed as suffering from:
major depressive disorder
On Monday, Matt felt optomistic, energetic, and on top of the world.  On Tuesday, he felt hopeless and lethargic, and thought that the future looked very grim.  Matt would MOST likely be diagnosed as having:
bipolar disorder
Connie's therapist has suggested that her depression stems from unresolved anger toward her parents.  Evidently, Connie's therapist is working within the ___________ perspective.
psychoanalytic
Ken's therapist suggested that his depression is a result of his self-defeating thoughts and negative assumptions about himself, his situation, and his future.  Evidently, Ken's therapist is working within the ____________  perspective.
social cognitive
Alicia's doctor, who thinks that Alicia's depression has a biochemical cause, prescribes a drug that:
increases norepinephrine
Wayne's doctor attempts to help wayne by prescribing a drug that blocks receptors for dopamine.  Wayne has apparently been diagnosed with:
schizophrenia
Thirteen-year-old Ronald constantly fidgets in his seat at school, frequently blurts out answers without being called, and is extremely distractible.  A psychiatrist might diagnose Ronald with
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
Janet, whose class presentation is titled "Current Views on the Causes of Schizophrenia," concludes her talk with the statement:
"genes may predispose some people to react to particular experiences by developing schizophrenia"
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions.
psychological disorder
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
ADHD
the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital
medical model
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, updated as a 2000 "text revision"' a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
DSM-IV-TR
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
anxiety disorders
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder maked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation
phobia
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).
obsessive-compulsive disorder
OCD
an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
PTSD
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