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Which of the European powers most aggressively pursued an overseas empire?
Spain
How did English come to be the dominant language of classic American literature?
Boston’s population growth, its religious college at Harvard, and its printing press gave New England an edge.
Which colonial author accounted for three dozen of the 250 works published in America before the end of the seventeenth century?
Cotton Mather
What is “orature,” a term pertaining to Native American cultural narratives?
oral culture relying exclusively on memory and the spoken word to hand down narratives
On which religious beliefs did the Pilgrims of Plymouth and the Puritans of Winthrop’s Massachusetts Bay Colony disagree?
God had given the American continent to His people.
Which of the following was not a reason members of exploratory expeditions made use of the written word, according to the anthology?

a) to explore and depict the identities of native peoples
b) to influence colonial policy at home
c) to justify unsanctioned actions abroad
d) to bear witness to atrocities against natives
a) to explore and depict the identities of Native peoples.
How did Puritans regard communion, or the Lord’s Supper?
they thought it was a sign of election and only church members in good standing could partake
Who was Diego Colón?
a Taino Indian who acted as Columbus’s interpreter
The anthology records a four-line poem translated from Nahuatl in 1528: ‘Broken spears lie in the roads; / we have torn our hair in our grief. / The houses are roofless now, and their walls / are red with blood.’ What event do these lines describe?
the conquest of Mexico by Cortés
According to John Underhill’s Newes from America (1638), what complaint did the English colonists’ Native allies level against them during their collective war with the Pequot tribe in 1637?
the English weapons were too violent and murderous
Which of the following does not help to account for the decimation of the Native population of Hispaniola in the early 1500s?
near constant war with the violent Pequot tribe
What common feature of European exploration links John Smith and Christopher Columbus?
both were targets of mutinies and in-fighting
What two issues of translation are involved with transcribing Native orature into an English anthology?
translating from Native to English language, and from oral to written form
What destination did many second-wave explorers, like Martin Frobisher and Samuel de Champlain, hope to find by sailing to the New World?
the Northwest Passage
Which of these is true of the Calvinist doctrine of election as practiced by the Puritans?
the “Covenant of Grace,” that Christ’s resurrection had made possible forgiveness and salvation, led Puritans to appeal most in their sermons to the indifferent who lacked zeal
At the end of the 1600s, Samuel Sewall’s book The Selling of Joseph became the first printed text to argue against what?
slavery
Which important allies of the English in New York were often consulted by the colonial governor about mutual defenses against the French and received much printed attention, including a report on the conference of the “Five Nations of Indians” in 1696?
the Iroquois
What do the collaborationist efforts of some Aztecs alongside Cortés against Montezuma and the Narragansetts and Mohegans with the New Englanders against the Pequots tell us about Native attitudes toward Europeans?
Natives seized the opportunities the Europeans’ presence afforded them to overcome their local enemies.
By what alliterative name were the Pilgrims known while still in England?
the Scrooby Separatists
When Columbus boasted to Ferdinand and Isabella in 1500 that he had “brought under [their] dominion...another world, whereby Spain, which was called poor, is now most rich,” what did he mean by this new “world”?
several new communities made up of European and Native social mixtures
Within how many years of Columbus’s first voyage (1492) had Europeans explored both exteriors and interiors of both American continents, and conquered the Incas and Aztecs?
fifty years
Pennsylvania’s founder, William Penn, had welcomed large numbers of European Protestants into his colony. With that in mind, in which language did the first printed work from Pennsylvania appear?
German
Why did many Native tribes suffer after the Revolution?
they were subject to vengeance after the war because they sided with the British
Why didn’t philosophers and scientists like Locke and Newton see anything heretical in arguing that the universe could be understood as a rational and orderly system?
they assumed God was also orderly and rational
In what way was the Great Awakening a response to the philosophy of John Locke?
it embraced Locke’s call for fellow-feeling and sentiment, calling for an emotional commitment to God
What name is given to thinkers who deduced the existence of God from the evidence of the observable universe rather than the Bible?
deists
As Crèvecoeur noted, what difference between Europe and America made social change without revolution possible in the new world?
the absence of a feudal hierarchy in America
Which Methodist preacher of the Great Awakening made progresses through England and the eastern cities of the American colonies, appealing emotionally to thousands of converts?
George Whitefield
Which author’s shift from anti-British, satirical poetry to anti-Federalist periodical essays helps illustrate the political bent of the late 1700s?
Philip Freneau
Which of the following describes the legal status of white American women in the eighteenth century?
women couldn’t vote, own property, or earn wages
What do the appearance of works by Judith Sargent Murray, Sarah Wentworth Morton, Susannah Rowson, and Hannah Webter Foster illustrate about publishing in the late 1700s?
women claimed the right to express their opinions about independence and their part in the new republic
Because of increased European demand for American goods, which colonial industry proved most lucrative?
shipbuilding
Which two intellectual beliefs best typified the Enlightenment as experienced in America?
people’s minds were capable of comprehending and understanding the world, and mutual sympathy between all people ought to be the basis for moral choices
Whose death in 1728 symbolizes the passing of Puritanism as experienced by the earliest English colonists and thus the beginning of the Enlightenment?
Cotton Mather
Which of the following was not a contributing factor to the erosion of small-town community and the rhetoric of Christian charity?
the common experience of ocean travel
Which American statesman best represents the ideals of the Enlightenment and its belief in the ultimate “perfectibility of man”?
Benjamin Franklin
Which was not part of Jonathan Edwards’s religious agenda during the Great Awakening?
emphasizing the role logic and reason must play in modern faith
Whose pamphlet, Common Sense (1776), has been credited with influencing the colonies decisively toward revolt?
Thomas Paine
Newspaper publications by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison written in 1787 and 1788 to support the proposed Constitution were known as?
The Federalist Papers
Which American assurance, found in the opening lines of the Declaration of Independence, derives from Scottish philosophers Francis Hutcheson and Henry Home?
there exists a universal sense of right and wrong
Why was the Second Continental Congress convened in 1776?
to protest the Stamp Act
As colonial involvement in transatlantic trade increased, which two groups suffered most so that a few could profit?
New England Indians and African slaves
Christopher Columbus, Letters

According to his letter to Luis de Santangel, what procedure did Columbus follow when he “took possession” of the islands he called the Indies for King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain?
He read a proclamation and unfurled a flag
Christopher Columbus, Letters

Which of the following best describes Columbus's financial situation on his final voyage?
He had spent or been stripped of most of the wealth he had accrued on earlier voyages.
Christopher Columbus, Letters

Which of the following did Columbus claim exists in the interior of the island of Espanola?
metal mines
Christopher Columbus, Letters

What does Columbus ask King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to do for him in the letter regarding the Fourth Voyage?
punish those who had stolen from him and infringed on his rights
Christopher Columbus, Letters

In the letter to Luis de Santangel, Columbus emphasizes the New World's
fertility
Christopher Columbus, Letters

In his letter to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Columbus concludes by stating his future plans if he survives his final voyage. What are they?
to go to Rome and other sites of religious pilgrimage
Christopher Columbus, Letters

Columbus often named the islands he “discovered” after
Catholic saints and religious concepts
William Bradford, From of Plymouth Plantation

After establishing their colony at Plymouth, the Pilgrims faced a difficult first winter. How many of the original one hundred survived this first season?
fifty
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