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10Â roles involved in mgmt
interpersonal (figurehead, leader, liaison), informational (monitor, desseminator, spokesperson), decisional (entrepreneur, distrubance handler, resource-allocator, negotiator)
3 levels of mgmt
top (upper) - president, chief executive; middle - district manger, base commander; first-line (lower-level, front-line, supervisory) - foreman, head nurse
3 phases of decision-making
intelligence (gathering knowledge leading to an understanding of what decision will have to be made, etc.), design (alternative courses of actions are invented), choice (actual decision is made)
3 skills involved in mgmt
technical, interpersonal, conceptual
4 functions of managers
planning, organizing, leading, and controlling
5 management process functions
"planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling"
5 Types of managers
line, staff, functional, general, and administrators
McCellands Theory of Achievement
the desire to excel or achieve in relation to a set of standards
McCellands Theory of Power
the desire to control overs and have influence over them.
8 Key Results Areas
market share, productivity, profitability, innovation, resources, worker performance and morale, manager performance and development, social responsibilities
Absolute comparisons
a process in which each criterion is compared to a standard or ranked on its own merits
Accessible: effective segmentation
the market segments can be effectively reached and served
Accommodative strategy
a social responsiveness strategy in which a company accepts responsibility for a problem and does all the society expects to solve that problem
accounting
the discipline that keeps track of a company's financial situation.
Action plan
the specific steps, people, and resources needed to accomplish a goal
actionable: effective segmentation
effective programs can be designed for attracting and serving the segments
activities
defined within the context of the work breakdown structure and are pieces of work that consume time
Activity in control process
Establishing performance standers, Measuring performance, Comparing measured performance to established standers, Talking corrective actions
Ad Council
a nonprofit organization that helps produce public service advertising campaigns for government agencies and other qualified sponsors.
ad layout
a sketch that shows the general arrangement and appearance of a finished ad.
adaptation
changing an existing product and/or promotion to better suit the characteristics of a targeted country or region.
Administrative Principles
Foresight, Organization, Command, Coordination, Control
Administrators
work in public and nonprofit organizations.
adoption: adoption process
the consumer decides to make full and regular use of the new product
advantages of functional project
team member can work on several projects, technical expertise is maintained within the functional area, functional area is a home after project completion, critical mass of specialized functional-area experts creates synergistic solutions to a project's technical problems
advantages of matrix project
communication bw functional divisions is enhanced, project manager is held responsible for successful completion of the project, duplication of resources is minimized, team members have a functional "home" after project completion, policies of the parent org are followed
advantages of pure project
project manager has full authority over the project, team members report to one boss, shortened communication lines, team pride, motivation, and commitment are high
advertising
a form of nonpersonal promotion in which companies pay to promote ideas, goods, or services in a variety of media outlets.
advertising agencies
independent businesses that specialize in developing ad campaigns and crafting the ads for the clients.
advertising campaign
a group of advertisements, commercials, and related promotional materials and activities that are designed as part of a coordinated advertising plan to meet specific goals of a company.
advertising proof
a representation of an ad that shows exactly how it will appear in print.
Advocacy groups
groups of concerned citizens who band together to try to influence the business practices of specific industries, businsesses and professions
After the fact controls
Current policies and procedures may prescribe corrective actions. Corrective action may call for exceptions to prescribed modes of behavior - doing whatever it takes to solve the problem may require empowering employees to use their imitative, discretion and good judgment to craft a unique of creative solution. Correction may be under automatic controls; check that these controls are not malfunctioning .
age and life cycle segmentation
dividing a market into different age and life cycle groups
agent
a wholesaler who represents buyers or sellers on a relatively permanent basis, performs only a few functions, and does not take title to goods
agents
intermediaries who bring buyers and sellers together and do not own the goods they sell.
aggregate sales and operations planning
finding the minimum-cost production schedule
agreement
a specific commitment that each member makes to the group.
allowance
a partial return of the sale price for merchandise that the customer has kept.
alteration
any changes made by a tailor to improve the fit of a garment, common with men's suits.
application blank
any form on which the employer asks the candidate to provide info
aptitude
an ability or natural talent; the potential to learn a certain skill.
arbitration
a dispute resolution procedure in which an independent third party decides and recommends how the disagreement should be resolved
articles of incorporation
a document filed with a state department of commerce that identifies the name and address of a new corporation, its purpose, the name of the inital directors, and the amount of stock that will be issued to each director.
aseptic packaging
a food storage process that keeps food fresh without refrigeration for up to six months.
assertiveness
standing up for what you believe.
asset
anything of monetary value that a person owns, such as cash, checking and savings accounts, real estate, or stocks.
attitude
a person's relatively consistent evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward and object or idea
attitude research
a type of research designed to obtain information on how people feel about certain products, services, companies, or ideas; also known as opinion research.
A-type Conflict (affective)
disagreement that focusses on individual or personal issues
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