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What is the main job of the respiratory system?
to bring oxygen (O2) into the body and carry carbon dioxide (CO2) out of the body
Where does external respiration occur?
in the lungs
What is external respiration?
the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air that is inhaled into the lungs and the blood flowing through the pulmonary capillaries
Without external respiration what would not happen?
there would be no oxygen in the blood and it would not be transmitted to the system
Where does internal respiration take place?
between the body’s cells and the blood
What happens during internal respiration?
Cells receive oxygen and dispose of their carbon dioxide
What does the respiratory system consist of?
Lungs, nostrils, nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli
How many functions are there of the respiratory system?
two; primary and secondary
What is the primary function of the respiratory system?
Oxygen - carbon dioxide exchange
What are the secondary functions of the respiratory system?
Voice production, body temperature regulation, acid-base balance regulation, sense of smell
What is another term for voice production?
phonation
Where does voice production happen?
in the larynx (voice box)
What are vocal cords?
Two fibrous connective tissue bands that stretch across the lumen of the larynx and vibrate as air passes over them
What other structures contribute to the resonance and characteristics of the vocal sounds?
thorax (chest cavity), nose, mouth, pharynx (throat), and sinuses
How does your body warm up the air you breathe?
Superficial blood vessels just under the epithelium of the nasal passages warm inhaled air before it reaches the lungs
What could be the problem with breathing cold air?
breathing in cold air would cool the blood thus the body during the oxygen - carbon dioxide exchange
How does your respiratory system help cool you down?
Rapid respiration movements caused during panting cause increased evaporation of fluid from the lining of the respiratory passages and mouth, which helps to cool the blood just under the epithelium
Why is the acid base balance important?
Proper acidity and alkalinity is needed to maintain homeostasis in the body
What is pH?
unit used to measure relative acidity or alkalinity
What does lower pH mean?
the more acidic the environment
What does higher pH mean?
the more alkaline the environment
What pH is neutral?
7
What is the normal pH of blood?
7.4
What is the acceptable pH range of blood?
7.35-7.45
How does the respiratory system contribute to the acid - base control?
its ability to influence the amount of CO2 in the blood
What does higher CO2 in the blood mean?
lower the blood pH, more acidic the blood
What does lower CO2 in the blood mean?
higher the blood pH, more alkaline the blood
How does the respiratory system alter the CO2 content in the blood?
by adjusting how fast air is breathed in and out
The sense of smell is also called what?
the olfactory sense
Where are the olfactory receptors located?
in patches of sensory epithelium located up high in the nasal passages
What does the uppper respiratory tract consist of?
All of the respiratory structures outside the lungs: Nose, Pharynx (throat), Larynx (voice box), & Trachea (wind pipe)
what does the lower respiratory tract consist of?
All of the respiratory structures within the lungs: Bronchi, Bronchioles, Alveolar ducts, and the Alveoli
What is the first part of the nose?
nostrils or nares
What are nostrils?
external openings of the respiratory tube that lead into the nasal passages
What are nares?
external openings of the respiratory tube that lead into the nasal passages
Where are the nasal passages located?
between the nares and the pharynx
What is the nasal septum?
a wall that separates the left nasal passage from the right
What seperates the left nasal passage from the right?
the nasal septum
What do the hard and soft palates do?
separate the nasal passages from the mouth
What seperates the nasal passages from the mouth?
the hard and soft palates
What are turbinates?
thin, scroll-like bones covered with nasal epithelium that occupy most of the lumen of the nasal passages
What is another term for turbinates?
nasal conchae
What is the thin, scroll-like bone that occupy most of the lumen of the nasal passages?
turbinates or nasal conchae
How many turbinates are in each nasal passage?
Two; Dorsal Turbinate & Ventral Turbinate
How many passagesways does each nasal passage divide into?
3
What are the passsageways that the turbinates divide the nasal passage called?
nasal meatus
What are the names of the nasal meatus?
Ventral nasal meatus, Middle nasal meatus, Dorsal nasal meatus, and Common nasal meatus
Which nasal meatus is not considered its own passageway?
Common nasal meatus
Which meatus is located between the ventral turbinate and the floor of the nasal passage?
ventral nasal meatus
Which meantus located between the two turbinates?
Middle nasal meatus
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