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Physical Anthropology Test 2
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What are some traits of mamals?


Homoeothermic, lactation, internal gestation, parental care, social organisms


How do primate senses compare to those of other mamals?



•Less emphasis on olfaction
•More emphasis on vision-
           -binocular vision (overlap, both eyes see it) -           -Stereoscopic-to both hemispheres, depth. -           -color vision


     
 


What is binocular vision?


Vision using two eyes with overlapping fields of view so that both eyes see something.


What is stereoscopic vision?


to both hemispheres, depth

Awareness of the relative distances of objects from the observer, by means of binocular vision only and based on retinal disparity. How you can see depth and the shape of an object.


What are some characteristics of primates (minus vision and apposable digits)?



•Small litters

•Long gestation

•Long juvenile period

•Live longer

•Larger brains

•Increased learning and complex behavior


What is aductive?


an "additional" toe like chimps that comes out of the side of the foot and can grab onto things.


What is abuctive?


toe like ours with big toe in line with rest of toes.


What are some characteristics that all primates have?



  • aposable digits and grasping hands

  • binocular vision and stereoscopic vision




What are the different types of locomotion primates have?



•Vertical clinging and leaping -- prosimians
•Quadrupedalism
•Palmigrade – monkeys/apes
•Knuckle-walking – chimp, bonobo, gorilla
•Fistb walking – orangutan
•Some with prehensile tail – cebids
•Brachiation – cebids, gibbons
•Bipedalism -- humans


What is quadrupedalism?


Walking on four legs


What is arboreal?


living in trees


What is palmigrade?


Walking on palms of hands


What is brachiation?


swinging by the arms from branch to branch


What are primate hands and feet like?



•Grasping hands and feet
–With opposable thumbs and big toes

•Nails instead of claws
        –Few exceptions to this rule
         -Strepsirhines retain a grooming claw


What is the arboreal hypothesis?


that primates developed binocular vision because they needed to have depth perception for jumping/swinging from branch to branch because they were living in trees.


What is the visual predadation hypothesis?


primates developed binocular vision in order to catch prey (insects), as opposed to prey like deer who have vision like (;^;) mostly on the sides of their body to see predators behind them. Primates have vision like \,,/ because they must've eaten insects.


What are the two purposes of teeth?


eating and weapons


Why are teeth important in studying primates?



•Preserve well

•Reveal diet

•Help classify species

•General (all teeth the same) vs specialized…


What are the four types of teeth?



  • Incisors (bite)



  • Canines (bite)



  • Premolars (crush and chew -- cusps)



  • Molars (crush and chew -- cusps are y-shaped in apes)




Who are the only ones who have y-shaped molars?


apes


What is the ancestral primate dental formula and who is it found in?


2133 and it's found in Lorises, pottos, and galagos. 


What is the dental formula for Lorises, pottos, and galagos?


2133


Who has the dental formula 2133?


Lorises, pottos, and galagos


What is the derived dental pattern and who is it found in?


2123 and it is found in all old world monkeys, apes, and humans.


What is the dental formula for old world monkeys?


2123


What is the dental formula for apes and humans?


2123


Who has the dental formula 2123?


All Old World monkeys, apes, and humans


What are some characteristics of nocturnal primates?


Large eyes, smell, movable ears


What does diurnal mean?


out during the day (opposite of nocturnal)


What is included in the primate suborder of strepsirhini?


Lemurs, Lorises, and Galagos


What are the two suborders of primates?


strepsirhini and haplorhines


What are two differences between haplorhini and strepsirhini skulls?


Haplorhini: relatively short rosturm (snout) and fully enclosed eye orbit (no post orbital bar)
Strepsirhini: relatively long rostrum (snout) and postorbital bar


Does Haplorhini or Strepsirhini have a post orbital bar?


Strepsirhini have a post orbital bar


Which suborder of primates is the most "primitive" or ancestral?


Strepsirhini


What primates does suborder Strepsirhini include?


Lemurs, Lorises, and Galagos


What primate suborder do Lemurs, Lorises, and Galagos belong to?


Strepsirhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: most primitive or ancestral


Strepsirhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: retention of some claws (grooming claw)


Strepsirhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: reliance on olfaction (smell)


Strepsirhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: laterally placed eyes


Strepsirhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: post orbital bar


Strepsirhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: shorter gestation and maturation



Strepsirhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic:wet pad on nose


Strepsirhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: dental specialization (dental comb)


Strepsirhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: presence of a tapetum lucidum (membrane on the eye that reflects light for night vision)


Strepsirhini


What is tapetum lucidum?


a membrane on the eye that reflects light for night vision


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: elongated snouts?


Strepsirhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: unfused mandible


Strepsirhini


What is Strepsirhine rhinarium?


Wet pad on nose


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: found in Africa and Asia


Strepsirhini


Where are lemurs found?


Madagasgar


T/F lemurs are only found in madagasgar


True, lemurs are only found on Madagasgar


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: short forelimbs


Strepsirhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: long hindlimbs


Strepsirhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: narrow rib cage


Strepsirhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: lateral scapula


Strepsirhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans


Haplorhini


What suborder do tarsiers belong to?


Haplorhini


What suborder do apes belong to?


Haplorhini


What suborder do monkeys belong to?


Haplorhini


What suborder do humans belong to?


Haplorhini


What suborder do lemurs belong to?


Strepsirhini


What suborder do lorises belong to?


Strepsirhini


What suborder do galagos belong to?


Strepsirhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: large brain and body size


Haplorhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: reduced reliance on sense of smell


Haplorhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic:great color vision


Haplorhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: bony plate at the back of the eye socket (enclosed eye orbit)



Haplorhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: less specialized dental formula (no dental comb)


Haplorhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: fused mandible


Haplorhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: only has nails


Haplorhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: no claws


Haplorhini


Is this a strepsirhini or haplorhini characteristic: dry nose


Haplorhini


Is this an Old World monkey or New World monkey characteristic: platyrrhini (flat nose, side facing nostrills)


New World


What is platyrrhini?


New World monkeys


What is Catarrhini (cercopithecoidea)?


nostrills close together and facing downward (found in old world monkeys, apes, and humans)


Is this an Old World monkey or New World monkey characteristic: catarrhini (nostrils close together facing downward)


Old World monkeys


Is this an Old World monkey or New World monkey characteristic: found in central and south America


New World monkeys


Is this an Old World monkey or New World monkey characteristic: 2133 dental formula


New World Monkeys


Is this an Old World monkey or New World monkey characteristic: diurnal


New World Monkeys


Is this an Old World monkey or New World monkey characteristic: non-bilophodont molars


New world Monkeys


What is the only nocturnal New World Monkey?


the owl monkey


What are the two families of platyrrhini (New World Monkeys)?


Callitrichidae (marmosets and tamarins) and cebidae (all the other new world monkeys)


What is Callitrichidae?


one of the two families of New World Monkeys. It includes marmosets and tamarins.


Who is in Callitrichidae?


Tamarins and marmosets


What is Cebidae?


One of the two families of New World Monkeys. It includes all New World Monkeys except marmosets and tamarins.


Who is in Cebidae?


All New World Monkeys except marmosets and tamarins


Is this a Callitrichidae or Cebidae characteristic: insectivorous




Callitrichidae


Is this a Callitrichidae or Cebidae characteristic: cooperative breeding


Callitrichidae


Is this a Callitrichidae or Cebidae characteristic: having twins


Callitrichidae


Is this a Callitrichidae or Cebidae characteristic: marmosets


Callitrichidae


Is this a Callitrichidae or Cebidae characteristic: pair bonded (one female with one to two males)


Callitrichidae


Is this a Callitrichidae or Cebidae characteristic: howler, squirrel, capuchen


Cebidae


Is this a Callitrichidae or Cebidae characteristic: arboreal quadrupeds


both


Is this a Callitrichidae or Cebidae characteristic: prehensile tail


Cebidae


Is this a Callitrichidae or Cebidae characteristic: generalized diet


Cebidae


Is this a Callitrichidae or Cebidae characteristic: mulitmale/multifemale groups


Cebidae


What are the characteristics of Callitrichidae?


Callitrichidae is one of two sub families of New World Monkeys.
includes marmosets and tamarins

  • Arboreal quadrupeds with some vertical clinging and leaping



  • Mostly insectivorous, but includes gum from trees and fruit



  • Family groups (pair bonded single female with 1-2 males) – males help raise young

  • Twins are common



  • Cooperative Breeders 


    • dominant female suppresses other’s ovulation



 


What is Cooperative Breeding?


dominant female suppresses other’s ovulation so only alpha female gets to breed



What are the characteristics of Cebidae?


Cebidae is one of two subfamilies of New World Monkeys.
It includes all New World Monkeys except marmosets and tamarins. Ex. howler, squirrel, capuchin, etc.

  • arboreal quadrupeds

  • only primates with prehensile tail

  • multimale/multifemale groups

  • Generalized diet of fruit, insects, and leaves


 


What are some characteristics of Howler monkeys and what are they?


New World Monkeys, in the subfamily Cebidae.

  • extremely territorial

  • one of the loudest animals in the world

  • throat sack allows for loud territorial howl




What are prehensile tails?


a long tail that acts as a fifth limb. The hair is gone from the underside with a rough calised skin underside so doesn't slip.


Is this an Old World monkey or New World monkey characteristic: equal length limbs


both


What are the characteristics of Catarrhini- cercopithecoidae?


Old World Monkeys

  • live in Africa and Asia

  • 2123 dental formula

  • Bilophodont molars (4 cusps)

  • arboreal quadrupeds and terrestrial quadrupeds

  • lack a prehensile tail

  • all have ischial callosities- a patch of tough hard skin on the buttocks associated with erect sitting 




What are the two categories of Cercopithecidae?


Cercopithecidae are Old World Monkeys

  • Cercopithecines- (terrestrial and omnivorous)

  • Colobines- (arboreal and vegetarian)




What are ischial callosities?


patch of tough hard skin on the buttocks – associated with erect sitting. All Old World Monkeys have it. 



Is this an Old World monkey or New World monkey characteristic: ischial callosities


Old World Monkeys


What do Cercopithecines include?


Old World Monkey subfamily including baboons, Macaques, and Guenons.


What are some characteristics of Cercopithecines?


Subfamily of Old World Monkeys

  • Generalized diet- omnivorous

  • both terrestrial and arboreal quadrupeds

  • Primarily multimale/multifemale social groups

  • largest social groups of any non-human primate




Is this a Cercopithecines or Colobines characteristic: generalized diet


Cercopithecines


Is this a Cercopithecines or Colobines characteristic: specialized diet


Colobines


Is this a Cercopithecines or Colobines characteristic: only arboreal quadrupeds


Colobines


Is this a Cercopithecines or Colobines characteristic: terrestrial and arboreal quadrupeds


Cercopithecines


Is this a Cercopithecines or Colobines characteristic: small social groups


Colubines


What are the characteristics of Colobines?


Subfamily of Old World Monkeys.

  • includes colobus, langurs, and odd-nosed monkeys

  • specialized diet- fulivorous

  • arboreal quadrupeds

  • small social groups inthe colobus and proboscis, while multimale/multifemale in the langurs




Is this a Cercopithecines or Colobines characteristic: colobus


colobines


Is this a Cercopithecines or Colobines characteristic: Langurs


colobines


Is this a Cercopithecines or Colobines characteristic: odd-nosed monkeys


colobines


Is this a Cercopithecines or Colobines characteristic: baboons


cercopithecines


Is this a Cercopithecines or Colobines characteristic: macaques


cercopithecines


Is this a Cercopithecines or Colobines characteristic: guenons


cercopithecines


Is this a Cercopithecines or Colobines characteristic: fulivorous


colobines


What does fulivorous mean?


eat leaves


Is this a New World Monkey or Old World Monkey characteristic: narrow abdomin/rib cage


both


What are the 4 kinds of teeth?


Incisors, Canines, premolars, molars


What do large bodied animals eat?


lower quality food, but higher quantity


What do small bodied animals eat?


higher quality food, but lower quantity


What does polyandy mean?


multiple males to one female (too many andys)


what does polygini mean?


multiple females to one male (too many ginis)


What are some characteristics of Strepsirhinis?


The most “primitive” (ancestral) primates

  • Retention of some claws (grooming claw)

  • Reliance on olfaction

  • Laterally placed eyes w/ postorbital bar

  • Shorter gestation and maturation

  • Dental specialization called the "dental comb”

  • Presence of the tapetum lucidum

  • Elongated snouts

  • Strepsirhine rhinarium (wet nose)

  • Unfused mandible




What are some characteristics of Lemurs?



  • Primarily Vertical clingers and leapers though some spend a lot of time on the ground 



  • 2-1-3-3 Dental Formula



  • Larger lemurs are diurnal and eat vegetable foods: fruit, leaves, buds, and bark.

  • Smaller lemurs are nocturnal and insectivorous
    (insect -feeding).

  • Only live in Madagascar

  • Strepsirhini

  • matriarchal




What is the smallest primate?


mouse lemur


What is an Aye Aye?


that creepy lemur that is killed on sight and is nocturnal that our teacher likes


What are some characteristics of Lorises?




    • Slender and slow varieties

    • Loris are found in tropical forests and woodlands of India, Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, and Africa.

    • Characteristics:


      • Lorises use a climbing form of  quadrupedalism / quadrumanous

      • Some lorises are insectivorous; others supplement their diet with fruit, leaves, gums, and slugs.






What are some characteristics of galagos?



  • “Bush Babies” are found throughout East Africa, as well as in woodlands and bushlands in sub-Saharan Africa. 


    • Highly active vertical clingers and leapers

    • Almost entirely insectivorous





    • Nocturnal

    • Solitary with established territories, sometimes small groups

    • 2-1-3-3 dental formula





    • Infant Parking





What are some characteristics of Tarsiers?


Haplorhinis. Tarsiers are small nocturnal  primates found on the islands of southeast Asia including the Philippines, Sulawwesi, Borneo, and Sumatra

  • Characteristics:


    • Tarsiers are primarily insectivorouswhich they catch by leaping from branches.



          • Retain a grooming claw







          • Lack a tooth comb and tapetum lucidum

          • 2-1-3-3 / 1-1-3-3 dental formula







          • Has the largest eye to body size ratio of any primate








            • Immobile within the socket rotate head 180 degrees






    • The basic social pattern appears to be a family unit consisting of a mated pair and their offspring.





What is Hominoidea?


Apes and Humans


What are some characteristics of hominoids that distinguish them from monkeys?



  • 2-1-2-3 Dental Formula

  • Y-5 Molar pattern



  • Larger body size 



  • Absence of a tail

  • Shortened trunk

  • Long arms relative to legs (except humans)

  • Brachiation, Suspensory, Knuckle walking, and Bipedal locomotion

  • Increased period of infant development and dependency



  • Diurnal




Is this a monkey or Hominoid (ape and human) characteristic: Y-5 molar pattern


Hominoid


Is this a monkey or Hominoid (ape and human) characteristic: 2123 dental formula


Hominoid


Is this a monkey or Hominoid (ape and human) characteristic: shortened trunk



hominoid


Is this a monkey or Hominoid (ape and human) characteristic: long arms relative to legs


hominoid


Is this a monkey or Hominoid (ape and human) characteristic: Brachiation, Suspensory, Knuckle walking, and Bipedal locomotion



hominoid



Is this a monkey or Hominoid (ape and human) characteristic: increased period of infant development and dependency



hominoid


What are some characteristics of hominoidea (apes and humans)?



  • Apes found in Africa and Asia

  • 2-1-2-3 Dental Formula

  • Y-5 Molar pattern

  • Larger body size 

  • Absence of a tail

  • Shortened trunk

  • Long arms relative to legs (except humans)

  • Brachiation, Suspensory, Knuckle walking, and Bipedal locomotion

  • Increased period of infant development and dependency

  • Diurnal




What are the three subcategories of hominoidea?



  • Hylobatidae- Gibbons and Siamangs (lesser apes)

  • Pongidae- Orangutan, Gorilla, Chimps, and Bonobos (Great apes)

  • Hominidae- humans and our ancestors




What is Hylobatidae?


Subfamily of hominoidea that includes Gibbons and Siamangs (lesser apes)


What is Pongidae?


Subfamily of hominoidea that includes Orangutan, Gorilla Chimps, and Bonobos (Great apes)


What is Hominidae?


Subfamily of hominoidea that includes humans and our ancestors.


What are some characteristics of Hylobatidae (Gibbons and Siamangs?



  • Found in tropical southeast Asia.

  • Locomotor adaptations for brachiation may be related to feeding behavior while hanging from branches.

  • Diet is largely fruit with supplements of leaves, flowers, and insects.

  • Basic social unit is a monogamous pair and their dependent offspring. 

  • Males and females are territorial and delineate their territories with whoops and “songs”.




What are some characteristics of Orangutans?


Subcategory of Pongidae in Hominoidea

  • Found in heavily forested areas of Borneo and Sumatra.

  • Slow, cautious climbers and almost completely arboreal (Suspensory) – fist walk on the ground.

  • Large animals (males = 200 pounds, females = 100 pounds) with pronounced 



  • sexual dimorphism.

  • Dominant males develop facial flaps

  • Solitary



  • Principally frugivorous




What are some characteristics of Gorillas?


Subcategory of Pongidae in Hominoidea

  • The largest of the living primates confined to forested regions of central Africa.

  • Exhibit marked sexual dimorphism; Males can weigh up to 400 pounds, females 200 pounds.

  • Completely folivorous

  • Primarily terrestrial, employing a semi-quadrupedal posture called knuckle -walking.

  • Live in groups that consist of one large silverback male, a few adult females, and their subadult offspring (harem).




What are some characteristics of chimpanzees?


Hominidae of Hominoidea

  • Found in equatorial Africa.

  • Anatomically similar to gorillas particularly in limb proportions and upper-body shape.

  • Locomotion includes knuckle-walking on the ground and brachiation in the trees.



  • Omnivorous diet – including meat. 



  • Large communities of as many as 50 individuals, multimale/ multifemale ruled by Alfa male.



  • Known for violence and infanticide




What are some characteristics of Bonobos?


Hominidae of Hominoidea

  • Only found in an area south of the Zaire river.

  • Slightly smaller – more gracile than chimp cousins

  • Their population is believed to only number a few thousand individuals.



  • Omnivorous: exploit many of the same foods as chimps, including occasional small mammals.

  • Male-female bonds constitute the societal core.  Bonobo sexuality includes frequent copulations and occur throughout the female's estrous cycle.

  • Multimale/ multifemale groups ruled by Alfa Female




What are some characteristics of Homo Sapiens?


Hominidae of Hominoidea
Characteristics:

  • Primate heritage is evident in anatomy, genetic makeup and aspects of behavior.

  • Human teeth are typical primate teeth.

  • Dependence on vision for orientation to the world

  • Flexible limbs and grasping hands



  • Omnivorous diet



  • Cognitive abilities are the result of dramatic increases in brain size.



  • Bipedal




Is the following characteristic that of a platyrrhine (New World Monkey), catarrhine (Old World Monkey), or catarrhine (apes and humans) or is it a characteristic of 2 or all of these groups? 
Widely spaced, round nostrils


Platyrrhine (New World Monkeys)


Is the following characteristic that of a platyrrhine (New World Monkey), catarrhine (Old World Monkey), or catarrhine (apes and humans) or is it a characteristic of 2 or all of these groups? 
closely spaced, downward pointing nostrils


Catarrhine (Old World Monkeys) and Catarrhine (Apes and Humans)


Is the following characteristic that of a platyrrhine (New World Monkey), catarrhine (Old World Monkey), or catarrhine (apes and humans) or is it a characteristic of 2 or all of these groups? 
non-bilophondont molars


Platyrrhine (New World Monkeys)


Is the following characteristic that of a platyrrhine (New World Monkey), catarrhine (Old World Monkey), or catarrhine (apes and humans) or is it a characteristic of 2 or all of these groups?
bilophondont molars


Catarrhine (Old World Monkeys)


Is the following characteristic that of a platyrrhine (New World Monkey), catarrhine (Old World Monkey), or catarrhine (apes and humans) or is it a characteristic of 2 or all of these groups?
Y-5 molars


Catarrhine (Apes and Humans)


Is the following characteristic that of a platyrrhine (New World Monkey), catarrhine (Old World Monkey), or catarrhine (apes and humans) or is it a characteristic of 2 or all of these groups?
2133 dental pattern 


Platyrrhine (New World Monkeys)


Is the following characteristic that of a platyrrhine (New World Monkey), catarrhine (Old World Monkey), or catarrhine (apes and humans) or is it a characteristic of 2 or all of these groups?
2123 dental pattern


Catarrhine (Old World Monkeys) and Cattarrhine (Apes and Humans)


Is the following characteristic that of a platyrrhine (New World Monkey), catarrhine (Old World Monkey), or catarrhine (apes and humans) or is it a characteristic of 2 or all of these groups? 
all have tails


Platyrrhine (New World Monkeys)


Is the following characteristic that of a platyrrhine (New World Monkey), catarrhine (Old World Monkey), or catarrhine (apes and humans) or is it a characteristic of 2 or all of these groups? 
some have tails


Platyrrhine (New World) and Catarrhine (Old World)


Is the following characteristic that of a platyrrhine (New World Monkey), catarrhine (Old World Monkey), or catarrhine (apes and humans) or is it a characteristic of 2 or all of these groups? 
Have some prehensile tails


Platyrrhine (New World)


Is the following characteristic that of a platyrrhine (New World Monkey), catarrhine (Old World Monkey), or catarrhine (apes and humans) or is it a characteristic of 2 or all of these groups? 
don't have prehensile tails


Catarrhine (Old World) and Catarrhine (Apes and Humans)


Is the following characteristic that of a platyrrhine (New World Monkey), catarrhine (Old World Monkey), or catarrhine (apes and humans) or is it a characteristic of 2 or all of these groups? 
narrow rib cage with laterall facing scapula


Platyrrhine (New World) and Catarrhine (Old World)


Is the following characteristic that of a platyrrhine (New World Monkey), catarrhine (Old World Monkey), or catarrhine (apes and humans) or is it a characteristic of 2 or all of these groups? 
equal length limbs


Platyrrhine (New world) and Catarrhine (Old World)


Is the following characteristic that of a platyrrhine (New World Monkey), catarrhine (Old World Monkey), or catarrhine (apes and humans) or is it a characteristic of 2 or all of these groups? 
Arboreal quadrupeds


Platyrrhine (New World) Catarrhine (Old World)


Is the following characteristic that of a platyrrhine (New World Monkey), catarrhine (Old World Monkey), or catarrhine (apes and humans) or is it a characteristic of 2 or all of these groups? 
arboreal quadrupeds only


Platyrrhine (New World)


Is the following characteristic that of a platyrrhine (New World Monkey), catarrhine (Old World Monkey), or catarrhine (apes and humans) or is it a characteristic of 2 or all of these groups? 
terrestrial quadrupeds


Catarrhine (Old World)


What are the differences between Strepsirhine and Haplorhine?


Strepsirhine- rhinarium present (wet nose), tooth comb, grooming, two part mandible, postorbital bar, tapetum lucidum, long muzzle
Haplorhine- no rhinarium (wet nose), no tooth comb, no grooming claw, fused mandible, complete bony eyes socket, no tapetum, lucidum,reduced muzzle.


What is social organization mostly determined by?


1. Food- the need to sustain growth and development, cell repair, and reproduction.
2.  Predation- Primates hunted by pythons, raptors, crocodiles, leopards, lions, tigers, other primates: baboons, chimps, or humans


What does food sustain?


Growth and development, cell repair, and reproduction.


The energy an organism requires for daily functions can be broken down into four parts. What are they?



•Basal metabolism – at rest

•Active metabolism – amount expended, usually about twice basal

•Growth rate – the younger and growing require more

•Reproductive effort – females require 25% more in late pregnancy, lactation 50% more


What parts of plants contain toxins and what parts should animals eat?


mature leaves and seeds are toxic, while young leaves, fruit, and flowers are less toxic and edible.


What are the generalizations of primate diet?


All rely on at least one food type high in protein + one high in carbohydrates


Insectivores are the smallest primates followed by insect/fruit, followed by fruit/ leaves, followed by folivers.





What are the upsides and downsides of being a fulivore?


folivores can find more food than frugivores or insectivores… in smaller home ranges… but have to deal with toxins


How does diet affect social organization?



1. Food distribution affects ranging patterns

2. Ranging patterns affect grouping patterns and thus social organization

•Females disperse in relation to food

•Males disperse in relation to females


What kind of mating system do Orangutans have?


Solitary


What kind of mating system do Gibbons, owl, and titi have?


Monogamy


What kind of mating system do marmosets and tamarins have?


polyandry


What kind of mating system do langur, howler, and gorilla have?


polygyny (one-male as opposed to multimale)


What kind of mating system do capuchin, macaques, baboons, and vervets have?


polygyny (mulimale) also called promiscuity


What is territory?


a small area that is monitored and defended with no overlapping boarders


What is a home range?


No defense of borders. Overlapping boarders. When meet others may fight, avoid one another, or rarely may mingle, play, and mate.


What is being defended when you have territories?



•Resource defense
       –Females defend food resources, or males do on their behalf (when foods limited, clumped, and defendable – if a wide area cannot defend

•Mate defense
        –Males defend females from outside males, if we see only males defending, probably not foods


What are some defense responses/strategies to predators?



•Alarm calls

•Freezing and hiding

•Mobbing

•Symbiotic vigilance/alarm calling, e.g., Diana monkeys see terrestrial predators 1st, red colobus get benefit… red colobus spot aerial pred. 1st and Diana benefits


What are the costs and benefits of being social?



Costs –

      •More competition over food and mates

      •More disease

      •Cannibalism, infanticide, cuckoldry (female cheating on her mate)

 

Benefits –

      •Better acquire and defend resources

      •Better avoid predation (detection, deterrence, dilution)


What is cuckoldry?


female cheating on her male mate


What are two types of competition?


scramble (Ex. pinata breaks) and contest (Ex. musical chairs)


What is scramble competition?



when resources distributed evenly, cannot monopolize, e.g., when pinata breaks scramble for candy


What is contest  competition?



when resources limited and can be monopolized profitably, e.g., musical chairs when two fight over the last chair. Ex. whoever catches the food will try to eat it


What are the determining factors of primate mating systems?


–Female philopatry – females remain in their birth group, while males disperse
–Male philopatry – males remain in their birth group, while females disperse


What is female philopatry?


females remain in their birth group, while males disperse


What is male philopatry?


males remain in their birth group, while females disperse


What are the functions of primate mating systems?


–Incest avoidance strategy
–Establish dominance


What are the benefits and costs of grooming?



Grooming benefit:

     •Hygienic by removing parasites and wounds clean

     •Affiliative interactions reinforce social relationships

Cost = time and energy and possibly less vigilance so > danger


How does rank affect females with reguard to reproduction?


Dominant females have greater access to resources, are in a better nutritional state, so their offspring grow faster and mature earlier, they have a shorter IBI (inter birh interval), and hav a higher offspring survival rate.


What are the trade-offs with female reproduction?


quality vs. quantity of offspring

Female can't ovulate while breast feeding, so can ween early if she wants to get pregnant fasterand have more kids, but her child wont be as high quality if ween early.



•Mother encourages independence to reduce her investment, weaning (shorter, less freq. bouts), less carrying…

•To conserve energy for next offspring

•Ovulation < likely if nursing at high freq.


What is estrus?


Genital swelling as advertisement of ovulation

3 aspects only occur during estrus:
•Receptivity

•Proceptivity

•Attractiveness



What are three aspects that only occur during estrus period?



•Receptivity-how ready a female is to accept a soliciting male

•Proceptivity- females actively soliciting males

•Attractiveness- females excite males with the swelling of estrus and only look attractive to them during estrus


What is receptivity?



•Readiness to copulate when solicited by a male
–Pawlowski
•No difference in receptivity between humans and primates
•The younger males with higher levels of testosterone constantly solicit females (even without signs of estrus)
•Similar to humans in that there is more of a constant receptivity


What is procepivity?



•Active encouragement and solicitations by females to copulate
–This behavior is more limited in primates to times during estrus
 
–Proceptive actions peak during periovulatory period of maximum swelling
 


What is attractiveness?



•Females become sexually exciting to males
–During estrus males find females sexually attractive, thus initiating copulations
 
–Most of the female primate menstrual cycle is characterized by sexual disinterest from males
–Until estrus


What is female choice?


–Intersexual selection- Males who attract females are favored… like a Peacock’s tail, lion’s mane (even if lower   survival) These traits often indicate good genes.


What is intersexual selection?


female choice (peacock)


What is intrasexual selection?



Male-male competition-
–Ability to defeat other males favored... (Deer’s antlers, larger body size)


Where does sexual dimorphism take place?


Monogamy: relaxed male-male competition so almost no sexual dimorphism

multimale, multifemale- some sexual dimorphism, but more focused in areas like having bigger balls to produce more sperm than other males

Unimale, multi female (harem)- high male-male competition, so big sexual dimorphism like larger canines and bigger body size for fighting. Ex. Gorilla


What is runaway sexual selection?



•Choosy female mutant appears among population of non-choosy females…

•Male with random preferred trait gets equal chance with non-choosy + > odds with choosy female, so he has > RS

•He passes on preferred random trait + the preference to daughters

•Trait & preference spread (self-fulfilling)


What are the three different types of mating systems?


–Monogamy- 1 male and 1 female form a breeding pair
–Polygamy
        •2 types:
             –Polygyny – 1 male and 2+ females
             –Polandry – 1 female and 2+ males
–Multiple troop system- Several males and several females form a social unit


What are the characteristics of monogamy and one example of a primate that practices it?


Gibbons
–Limited mating opportunities
–High Male investment
–High Male confidence in paternity
–Little sexual dimorphism
–Territoriality – male and female resource guarding






What are the two hypothesis for the evolution of monogamy?


1. Monogamy evolves when male parental care is indispensable to female reproduction.

2. Monogamy evolves when aggression by mated females leads to their spatial separation and prevents males from acquiring additional mates."


What is promiscuity?



Refers to when an individual mates with several members of the opposite sex without establishment of a relationship beyond the sexual act


What are the two preconditions for the evolution of polygyny?



1.It must be economically feasible for males to defend females. (Costs vs. Benefits)

 

2.Males must be able to capitalize on potential for polygyny.


What are the three types of promiscuity?



•Multisex troops
–Multimale/multifemale with or without bonds
 

•Polygyny
–Unimale/multifemale
 

•Polyandry
–Unifemale/multimale


What are the characteristics of multimale/multifemale without bonds and an example of a primate that practices it?



Chimpanzees
•Characteristics:
–Promiscuous mating
–No male investment
–No confidence in paternity
–Moderate sexual dimorphism – sperm competition
–Territorial – male defense of females






What are the characteristics of multimale/multifemale with bonds and an example of a primate that practices it?



•Hamadryas Baboons (the ones that live in large numbers on cliffs)
•Characteristics
–Harems within the general population
–Limited matings to pair bonds
–Moderate male investment
–Moderate confidence in paternity
–Moderate sexual dimorphism
–Home ranges – mate guarding within harem







What are the characteristics of Unimale/multifemale and an example of a primate that practices it?


Gorillas

•Characteristics
–Limited to one male matings
–Low paternal investment
–High confidence in paternity
–Large amount of dimorphism
–Territorial – males guard females
 


What is social mating system?



what we observe, e.g. one male and one female copulate, build nest and bring food back to nest to feed chicks = monogamy (as opposed to the actual DNA of the offspring aka paternity ests)


What is effective mating system?


DNA paternity test reveals only 60% of those chicks were sired by the male bringing food, 40% by other male via extra-pair copulation (EPC) = not monandry à cuckoldry

(as opposed to what we observe)


What is Theory of Mind (TOM)?



•Do primates just use associative learning -- learn to pull lever to get reward?

 

•Or do they predict what others will do based on knowledge of mental states?

 

•TOM enables one to deceive others to better manipulate them


What are three TOM (Theory Of Mind) experiments?


1) Captive macaques: in one trial mothers and infants saw food; in second trial only mother saw – if mothers have TOM they should “tell” infant where food is. Result: mothers acted no different in 2 trials -- did not understand what infants knew.

2) False belief test –Others have different beliefs and knowledge about the world. Sally (doll) has a basket with a marble. Anne (doll) has a box. Anne moves the marble to the box when Sally isn’t looking. Researcher asks child where Sally will look for the marble. Kids fail till about 4 yrs

3) Subordinate chimp, as predicted by TOM, almost always goes for hidden food knowing that dominant could not see it so he could eat before dominant got to it.


What are some characteristics of early mammals?


nocturnal, solitary, arboreal.


What are the two main things we look for when determining primates from mammals in the fossil record?


eyes and hands


What is the Plesiadapis?


a nocturnal, solitary, quadruped fossil once thought to be the ancestor of primates, but has several features not like primates such as no opposable big toe, claws, small brain, no postorbital bar, and large insisors.


What is Carpolestes simpsoni?



  • A fossil we think is primates' ancestor.

  • Is in a transitional period and has some primate features (like grasping hands and opposable big toe with flat nail) but some non-primate features (like non-primate eyes and claws on all fingers except big toe)

  • Had low-crowned molars for fruit.




What did Cartmill say caused the development of primate traits (grasping hands and forward facing eyes) and why was he wrong?



  • Cartmill – forward eyes, grasping hands and feet and nails for grasping insects on terminal branches

  • But grasping hands and feet in Carpolestes (oldest primate ancestor), which ate fruit, before forward eyes




What did Szalay say caused the development of primate traits (grasping hands and forward facing eyes) and why was he wrong?




    • Szalay – grasping hands and feet and nails for leaping

    • But grasping hands and feet in Carpolestes (oldest primate ancestor), which did not leap 





What did Sussman say caused the development of primate traits (grasping hands and forward facing eyes) and why was he wrong?



  • Sussman – grasping hands and feet and nails for handling fruit, nectar, flowers, gum and insects at night, thus good vision

  • But grasping hands and feet in Carpolestes but no forward directed eyes (postorbital bar)




What did Rasmussen say caused the development of primate traits (grasping hands and forward facing eyes) and why was he right?



  • Rasmussen – grasping hands and feet and nails for handling fruit, nectar, flowers in terminal branches of angiosperms

  • Later, eyes were shifted forward to help catch insects

  • This fits with evidence in Carpolestes, i.e., first grasping and only later forward eyes




Who came up with the correct theory about how primate traits (eyes and hands) were developed?


Rasmussen


What did Rasmussen do?


ame up with the correct theory about how primate traits (eyes and hands) were developed


What are adapids and what are some of their characteristics?



  • fossil primate ancestors

  • smaller eye orbits, so diurnal

  • bigger bodied




What are omomyids and what are some of their characteristics?



  • fossil primate ancestors

  • Big eye orbits, so nocturnal

  • smaller bodied

  • tarsier-like




What are parapithecids?


may be ancestor to old and new world monkeys


What happened during the miocene period?


when apes spread out. Lots of apes


What happened during midmiocene period?


Tougher diet, resulting in change in dental structure and chewing muscles because of drier climate.


What happened at the end of the miocene period?


most apes went extinct because they were specialized and couldn't adapt to dryer climte when forests receded, whereas monkeys proliferated because they were generalized.


What differences were there between fossil monkeys and apes?



  • Monkeys move atop branches, apes beneath

  • Gives apes shorter trunks, broader chests, long arms, and flexible shoulder joint – no tails and Great Apes lack sitting pads.




What is important about morotopithecus sapula?


evidence of suspensory locomotion brachiation. Allowed  arms to to swing in a circle, which monkeys cant do.


What were early miocene apes like?



  • early Miocene apes in Africa w/ some derived ape features in face and teeth but not postcraina




What is the sagittal plane?


plane that cuts the body in half down the midline through the nose to the back of the head  [O-]  - equals nose, O equals head


What is the coronal plane?


plane that cuts the body in half sideways through each ear. ["O"]


What is the transverse plane?


plane that cuts the body in half through the stomach like a guiatine.


What is medial?


toward the midline


What is lateral?


away from the midline


What is proximal?


closer to the body (Ex. arm bone is closer than the hand)


What is distal?


farther, or more distant, to the body (Ex. hand is farther from body than elbow)


What is superior?


toward the top of the body (the head)


What is inferior?


toward the bottom of the body (the feet)


What is posterior?


toward the back (dorsal fin)


What is anterior?


toward the front (Ex. breasts and stomach)


What are the functions of the skeletal system?



  • Makes up body framework - gives body shape

  • Supports the body

  • Protects vital internal organs

  • Provides for movement

  • Stores mineral reserves

  • Produces red blood cells




What is bone and what is it made up of?



  • Bone is living tissue.

  • It is a solid network of cells and protein fibers surrounded by deposits of minerals. 

  • Components: collagen, bone cells, minerals, calcium, phosphorous, and water.

  •  




What do osteogenic cells do?


respond to traumas, such as fractures, by giving rise to osteoblasts and osteoclasts.



What do osteoblasts do?


(bone-forming cells) synthesize and secrete unmineralized ground substance and are found in areas of high metabolism within the bone. 



What are osteocytes?


mature bone cells made from osteoblasts that have made bone tissue around themselves. 



What are osteoclasts?


large cells that break down bone tissue. They are very important to bone growth, healing, and remodeling. 



What are the four different types of skeletal tissue?



  • Compact bone

  • Spongy bone

  • Cartilage

  • Fibroblasts




What is the epiphysis?


the very end of a bone


What is the metaphysis?


section of spongy bone between the epiphysis (end of the bone) and the diaphysis (the middle section of bone)


What is the diaphysis?


the compact middle section of a bone.


What does bone marrow do?


Bone marrow (primarily yellow marrow) stores fat that serves as an energy reserve and contains blood vessels and nerve cells.


What is Spongy bone and what does it do?


the inside layer of compact bone that is actually quite strong but lacy in appearance and contains red marrow which produces blood cells.     


What is compact bone and what does it do?


Compact bone is a dense layer of bone tissue composed of cylinders or tubes of mineral crystals and protein fibers,that give bone its strength.


What is the periosteum and what does it do?


Periosteum covers bone, is a place for tendon and ligament attachment, and brings blood, lymph vessels and nerves into the bone.


What does the axial skeleton include?


the skull, ribs, sternum, and vertebra


What does the appendicular skeleton include?


arms, legs, shoulder girdle, hip girdle, clavicle, and pelvis (illium).


The following bone belongs where in the skeleton (what is it a part of?):
frontal bone


part of the skull


The following bone belongs where in the skeleton (what is it a part of?): parietal bone


part of the skull


The following bone belongs where in the skeleton (what is it a part of?): temporal bone


part of the skull


The following bone belongs where in the skeleton (what is it a part of?): zygomatic bone



part of the skull


The following bone belongs where in the skeleton (what is it a part of?): maxilla


part of the skull


The following bone belongs where in the skeleton (what is it a part of?): mandible



part of the skull


The following bone belongs where in the skeleton (what is it a part of?): scapula


part of the shoulder girdle


The following bone belongs where in the skeleton (what is it a part of?): clavicle


part of shoulder girdle


The following bone belongs where in the skeleton (what is it a part of?): phlangies


part of hand


The following bone belongs where in the skeleton (what is it a part of?): ulna


part of lower arm (non thumb side


The following bone belongs where in the skeleton (what is it a part of?): radius


part of lower arm (thumb side)


The following bone belongs where in the skeleton (what is it a part of?): humerus


upper arm


The following bone belongs where in the skeleton (what is it a part of?): illium


part of pelvic girdle (back of pelvis you sit on)


The following bone belongs where in the skeleton (what is it a part of?): ischium


part of the pelvic girdle (front)


The following bone belongs where in the skeleton (what is it a part of?): femur


part of upper leg


The following bone belongs where in the skeleton (what is it a part of?): patella


part of leg (knee cap)


The following bone belongs where in the skeleton (what is it a part of?): tibia


part of lower leg (bigger bone)


The following bone belongs where in the skeleton (what is it a part of?): fibula


part of lower leg (smaller bone)


The following bone belongs where in the skeleton (what is it a part of?): tarsals


part of leg (ankle like carpuls in the wrist)


The following bone belongs where in the skeleton (what is it a part of?): meta tarslas


part of leg (foot like meta carpuls)


What characteristics changed in order for us to become bipeds?



  • The vertebral column and skull- S shaped vertebrae, foramen magnum (hole in skull allowed spine to come straight down from skull)

  • The pelvis and birth canal

  • The Leg- femurs angled into knee, femoral condyles (angled outward

  • The foot- abducted toe

  • The arm- released from locomotor activities




What is enamel?




    • the outer covering on the crown of the tooth which protects it from chemical and physical destruction.

    • Enamel is the hardest substance in the human body because it is 98% inorganic.

    • As a result, teeth are unduly represented in the archaeological record.

    • A wealth of information regarding age, sex, diet, and health can be collected from dental samples.





What are the differences between chimp teeth and hominid teeth?


Chimp: thin teeth enamel and projecting canines
Hominids: very thick teeth enamel and non-projecting canines


What is rib cage adaptation locomotion?


placement of the shoulder girdle, arm rotation, muscle attachments, and lung capacity



Where is the center of gravity for quadrupeds and for bipeds and what is the reason for ths difference?


Quadrupeds: middle of stomach due to a C-shaped spine
Bipeds: center of gravity falls between the two feet when standing with legs extended due to an S-Curved spine


What is the foramen magnum?


The hole in the skull the spine and nuchal muscles come out of


What features do hominids have to maintain balance while walking bipedally??



  • S-shaped spine to maintain center of gravity (instead of a C-shaped spine)

  • foramen magnum (hole in the skull) is directly below the skull (instead of posterior)

  • pelvis with a foreshortened ilium and is bowl-shaped (instead of a long ilium positioned on the back, not the side, of the animal)

  • Gluteal Muscles repositioned to aid in support

  • Abductors to counter torque and falling. 

  • Enlarged femoral condyles to support body weight. Femur longer for abductor muscles. Femur angled inward at tibia so knee can be near body center.

  • Foot with stouter bones to support more weight than quadruped. Abducted big toe is bigger and in line with other toes which are smaller and less curved. When bipeds walk they do heel strike to toe off.




What is abducted?


Human toe. Big toe is in line with other toes.


What is adducted?


Ape toe. A toe "added" to the side of their foot.


What was the tool use theory for the evolution of habitual bipedalism?


hominids wanted to carry the tools they made with them.


What was the food carrying, male provisioning theory for the evolution of habitual bipedalism?


males would go kill stuff and wanted to carry them back to the home base where the females and kids were


What was the energy efficient locomotion theory for the evolution of habitual bipedalism?


Walking bipedally was way more efficient than quadruped walking