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Intro to the Arts Final
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____  was typical of the Renaissance because of his versatility


Leanardo da Vinci


Compared with medieval painting, _______ painters used more sophisticated perspective.



Renaissance


The art of Michelangelo is characterized by ____________



The glorification of the human body


Composers of the Renaissance developed a polyphonic style of music. (Like the composer Josquin des Prez) What is polyphonice music?


Multi-lined


The Renaissance was closely associated with the ______ philosophy.



Humanistic


The Dead Christ by Mantegna illustrates ________________


Foreshortening


Michelangelo’s Last Judgment is located____________


The East wall of the Sistine Chapel


The paintings in the Sistine Chapel are what type of medium


Fresco


The paintings in the Sistine Chapel were done by: _______________



Michaelangelo


Basic artistic style of da Vinci


He designed public buildings; built dams and
constructed a canal; rebuilt the fortifications of
Milan and devised new instruments of war;
invented an aircraft and a submarine; and wrote
treatises on anatomy, optics, geology, physics
and painting.

Most famous artistic works: Mona Lisa and the fresco….The
Lord‘s Supper.  


Basic artistic style of Michaelangelo


Mostly identified as a sculptor.
– He saw the human form through the eyes of one who
worked with marble & chisel.
– It is as if he were ‗painting‘ the sculptures.
– He is quoted to have said, ―The only fit subject for an
artist is man.

The Sistine Chapel—filled with frescoes
depicting the epic of humankind from creation to
the day of judgment.—Michelangelo‟s
GREATEST paintings.

 


Basic artistic style of Donatello


– Donatello mastered several diverse artistic styles.
– The ―David‖ sculpture is a life-size, youthful figure of
David in bronze (5 ft tall).
• 3 important objects from slaying the giant are in the work:
• The stone, the sword and Goliath‘s severed head…which rests
beneath the triumphant David‘s left foot.
• Upon his shepherd‘s hat lies a laurel wreath—which symbolizes
victory.
– Donatello emphasized David‘s boyish charm.
– The posture emphasizes lightness and movement with
the CONTRAPPOSTO application (the slight displacement
of hips and straightening of one leg to show weight shift
to that leg).


Basic artistic style of Botticello


an Italian painter of the EarlyRenaissance. He belonged to theFlorentine school under the patronage of Lorenzo de' Medici, a movement that Giorgio Vasariwould characterize less than a hundred years later as a "golden age", a thought, suitably enough, he expressed at the head of hisVita of Botticelli. Botticelli's posthumous reputation suffered until the late 19th century; since then his work has been seen to represent the linear grace of Early Renaissance painting. Among his best known works are The Birth of Venus and Primavera.


Renaissance artists were more concerned with ___ they portrayed their subjects than ___ they 


HOW & WHAT


Michelangelo primarily thought of himself as a ____________


Sculptor


A primary principle of __________ was that the subject should be true to nature.



Renaissance painting


There was little difference in style between vocal & instrumental music during the Renaissance.



Vocal & instrumental


Sacred music of the Renaissance was written primarily in __________ style. (homophony, chant or polyphony)



Polyphonic


The word BAROQUE is derived from_____________


The term BAROQUE (from the
Portugese barroco—pearl of
irregular shape) was first used to
describe a style of art overlade
with ornamentation.


____, ____ ____ & ______  are distinguishing elements of Baroque music.


Figured bass, basso continuo & ornamentation


A chief characteristic of ____ music is the emancipation of instrumental music from vocal forms.



Baroque


Why did Baroque painters seek middle-class patronage?



The Medici Family


Plots for Baroque operas were usually taken from mythology. Why?



– Fused drama and music through the use of
recitatives, which carried the narrative text of the
drama; arias and solo ensembles, which provided
massed effects.
– By mid 17C there were 2 distinct types of dramatic
vocal settings: the recitative and aria.


Rembrandt was one of the first artists to develop __________________?



He was one of the first to exploit the function of light
& shade as a medium of extending space, both in
recession & projection.


The Protestant spirit in music is best illustrated by the works of _____



J. S. Bach


Rubens paintings are noted for their_________________


Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)
was one of the greatest painters to
come from the Flemish Counter-
Reformation.
– Combining the best elements of the
Italian schools of art, he created
some of the most stimulating and
significant art of any period.
– He was an interpreter of the violently
anti-protestant movement of Spanish
Flanders.
• He has left some of the most moving
religious art of that period.


______ was influenced by the Jesuits & their spiritual exercises.



Diego Velasquez


_______ was a strong artistic voice for the Jesuits.



El Greco


The music of _______ was influenced by the space in which it was to be performed----St. Mark’s Cathedral, Venice. Remember: surround sound J



Giovanni Gabrieli


______ philosophy tended toward a systematizing of every aspect of human experience.



Baroque








Review: Rembrandt’s group portrait: Dr. Tulp’s Anatomy Lesson The most famous work of his early period
was Dr. Tulp‘s Anatomy Lesson



Neoclassicism was a revolt against_________


Rationalism


The music of Mozart is appealing partly because of its-_________


• General characteristics:
– Elegant, restrained, stable, balanced:
predictable, with clear musical ideas: you seem
to know the music even on the first hearing.
• PERFORMING medium:
– Symphony orchestra, chamber orchestra, soloists
& orchestra, piano, chamber ensembles & opera
companies
• RHYTHM: simple, regular rhythms with
steady beat: steady tempos with little
change



An important feature of music of the Classic period is its ________ of form.


FORMS: easy to follow; dance ‗suites,‘ theme &
variations, concerto, sonata, string trio & quartets,
opera, some masses & oratorios.
WHEEEEEEWHHHH……………


  1. Most French, German & Austro-Hungarian courts maintained a __________ musicians.



staff of resident


  1. During the classic era, the musicians were considered _____________. [level of society]



merely servants


  1. In the Oath of Horatii by David, the subject is taken from ________ [ancient] history.




Neoclassic French


  1. During the Classical era, general musical characteristics included: __________________________________________________________



• General characteristics:
– Elegant, restrained, stable, balanced:
predictable, with clear musical ideas: you seem
to know the music even on the first hearing.
• PERFORMING medium:
– Symphony orchestra, chamber orchestra, soloists
& orchestra, piano, chamber ensembles & opera
companies
• RHYTHM: simple, regular rhythms with
steady beat: steady tempos with little
change


  1. It is said that Mozart was perhaps the most ______________ musical creator in the history of Western Music.



'nearly perfect'


  1. The term Romantic is used to designate the style of art and music during which century? 



19th


  1. Romantic painting attempts to express___________. 



 The painters painted a wide range of subject
matter and treated it with greater individuality
than the previous periods.
 ART WAS FINALLY FREE!!!!!!!!!!!
 Art could express the personal feelings of the
artist.
 The emotions of violence & excitement replaced the
social niceties of the previous era.


What happened to romantic music --patronage?


 In the Romantic period, music
was an effective medium for
personal artistic expression.
 Although music deals with
only tones in the abstract,
listeners translate these sounds
into specific personal feelings &
experiences.
 The 19C gave the composers a
platform of freedom. They no
longer had to abide by the
patronage support of the
Church nor the aristocrats.
 From this period on—
composers responded either
to their public or to their
own impulse


  1. Goya’s Third of May was given this name because______________. 



In the Third of May (colorplate #52) Goya portrayed
the drama of terror, blood & violence and moralized
on the event at the same time.
 Subject: execution of Spanish loyalists by the French
[Napoleon‘s group—during occupation].
 Goya witnessed the horrible event—and its said that he
went by night to sketch the pile of bloody corpses in
preparation for his painting.


  1. In spite of being totally deaf in his later years, this Romantic composer wrote some of the greatest music of all time. ________________



Beethoven


  1. Romantic music was an effective medium for ______________. 



personal artistic expression


 The raft of the Medusa (colorplate 48)
 One of the first painters of the French Romantic
movement.
 This painting was inspired by a newspaper account of
the sinking of the ship ―Medusa‖ off the coast of West
Africa.
 After many days on a ‗storm-tossed‘ raft, only a handful
of survivors reached safety.
 In order to report the event he hired the survivors as
models and studies of corpses in order to show the
victims accurately.



 Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863) –became the
leader of the Romantic movement in painting.
 His famous work “Liberty Leading the People”
(colorplate #49)
 Captured the spirit of the Romantic revolution.
 He symbolized the struggle for freedom against the
forces of tyranny by portraying an allegorical goddess,
Liberty, leading the people of France over the
barricades.

Viva La Vida album cover 



The ________________ became the patron for the 19C. 


public or themselves


All Romantic music is based on the premise that musical __________is necessary to achieve a corresponding intensification of emotional response. 


tension


  1. True or False: In contrast to classical art, Romantic art is seldom experimental. 



False


  1. Beethoven is a “________” composer—he has one foot in the classical and one foot in the romantic style period.



'bridge'


  1. Because of Beethoven’s increasing deafness, he assisted in the development of the ________[instrument]. 



Hearing aids?


  1. Impressionist painters had a special fondness for ____________ 



subject landscapes


  1. In general, it can be said that Impressionist painters strove to depict transitory _____ & _______



images & feelings.


The most important element in Impressionist painting was_______.


Impressionism was a reaction to the exuberance and
the excess of Romanticism…and…yet IT was
romantic!!!
 It was realistic in its attempts to portray the subject,
but now as seen through the eyes of the artist at a
particular moment and under the particular
conditions of the moment.
 Its final aim was to evoke an image, to suggest an
emotion.
 There was less passion and deep feeling.
 It was a cult of suggestive colors, lines & sounds, a
fleeting glance, an incomplete melody…


Impressionist painters were concerned with intense symbolism


True    It was realistic in its attempts to portray the subject,
but now as seen through the eyes of the artist at a
particular moment and under the particular
conditions of the moment.
 Its final aim was to evoke an image, to suggest an
emotion.


Design is a major concern of Impressionistic painters. 


True


  1. Impressionist painters usually went outdoors to paint their subjects. 



True


  1. Painters and composers of the Impressionist school were strongly influenced the Symbolist poets Verlaine & Mallarmé. 



True


  1. What was the most important element in Impressionist painting?



 Its final aim was to evoke an image, to suggest an
emotion.
 There was less passion and deep feeling.
 It was a cult of suggestive colors, lines & sounds, a
fleeting glance, an incomplete melody…
4/26/2012 Dr. Susanne Reid/Intro_Art/S12 KEEP GOING…. 


The attempt of painters to reduce nature to its basic geometric form is?


Impressionism


  1. The most easily recognizable quality of 20C music is its?___________



Relatability?


_____ was an expressionistic painter who was tormented by the misery of humanity and tried to express his feelings about the universe.


Van Gogh


the painting Starry Night by Van Gogh/a work that seeks to express the ___________


cosmic forces of nature.


________ was an artist who experimented with many styles.


Picasso


the painting Guernica by Picasso/ a modern painting that shows its creator’s protest against the ______________


horrors of modern warfare.


"Where Do We Come From?" 
Where was this painting created?


Tahiti


Where do we....
What is the medium?


Oil on canvas


Where do we...
True or False: This painting addresses Paul Gauguin's struggle with the meaning of existence 


True


  1. Figure 7.1 …Andrea Mantegna, “The Dead Christ”---Renaissance
    1. Special fact: unique perspective word applies to this work
    • Foreshortening




  1. COLORPLATE #20……..“Adoration of the Magi”—by Botticelli---Renaissance
    1. Special fact: who is painted into this work?
    • Leonardo Da Vinci
    1. What are the identifying hallmarks that put this work in its time period?
    • Unfinished, oil on wood




  1. COLORPLATE #25……..“The Last Supper”—by Da Vinci---Renaissance
    1. What happened to da Vinci’s ‘new’ fresco technique?
    • Dry plaster, cracked 




  1. COLORPLATE #39…… “The Maids of Honor” –by Velasquez---Baroque
    1. Who is painted into this work?
    1. Why does he have a red cross on his chest?
    • On his chest is the red cross of theOrder of Santiago, which he did not receive until 1659, three years after the painting was completed. According to Palomino, Philip ordered this to be added after Velázquez's death, "and some say that his Majesty himself painted it"





  1. COLORPLATE #44……..“Oath of the Horatii”—by David---Classic
    1. What impending war does this point to?
    • A war between Rome and Alba




  1. COLORPLATE #48……..”Raft of the Medusa” –by Géricault---Romantic
    1. What is the background regarding this painting?
    • A ship named Meduse overtook two ships but then got off course and collided. Many people died. 
    1. Why does it represent its style period so perfectly?
    • Contrast, realistic 




  1. COLORPLATE #49…….. “Liberty leading the people” –by Delacroix---Romantic
    1. What impending war does this point to? Or What album cover? 
    • Viva La Vida




  1. COLORPLATE #52…….. “Third of May” –by Goya---Romantic
    1. What subject matter is represented in this work?
    • Spanish people subject to execution




  1. Where do we come from? What are we? Where are we going? by Gauguin---Post-Impressionism --Google
    1. Where was the painting created?



Tahiti


  1. COLORPLATE # 72 ….. “Starry night” –by Van Gogh—post-Impressionism
    1. Name an interesting fact about Van Gogh’s spiritual life.
    • Son of a Dtuch minister




  1. WATER LILLIES by Claude Monet (google image)—Realism/Impressionism --Google
    1. What invention in 1838—made this impressionism technique possible?
    • Stereoscope (glasses)




  1. Medium:
  2. Line:
  3. Space:
  4. Monochromatic/polychromatic (circle)
  5. Form: 






Palestrina—Missa Papae Marcelli—Agnus Dei (per music handed out in class)--Renaissance


  1. J. S. Bach—Prelude and Fugue in B flat Major (per music handed out in class)—Baroque



  1. Monteverdi--L’Orfeo – opera –representative--Baroque



  1. Pachelbel Rant
    1. Why does this parody of baroque music express the foundation for all modern music?



  1. Mozart, WA—Eine Kleine Nachtmusik--Classical



  1. Beethoven—5th symphony and 9th symphony--Romantic



Schubert—Erlking—Romantic--Romantic


Chopin—Fantasy Impromptu--Romantic



  1. Mussorgsky—Boris Godunov—Coronation Scene--Nationalism



  1. Berlioz—Symphonie Fantastique—Movement 4—March to the Scaffold--Realism



  1. Debussy—Prelude to the afternoon of a Faun—associated with impressionism



  1. Schoenberg—Pierrot Lunaire—No.8—Nacht—associated with abstract/post-modernism



  1. DYNAMICS: soft/moderate/loud/combination
  2. BEAT: PRESENT OR NOT PRESENT (CIRCLE)
  3. PHRASE or MOTIVES (circle the proper answer)
  4. TONE: _____________________________________
  5. TEXTURE: __________________________________
  6. HARMONY/TONALITY: YES or NO (circle proper answer)